Sequence Based Polymorphism of Lactoferrin Gene in Relation to Fertility in Egyptian Buffaloes
Hazem El-Debaky, Khaled A Abd EL-Razik, ASA Sosa, Karima Gh M Mahmoud, MMM Kandiel and Yousef F Ahmed
Abstract
Abstract
Lactoferrin (LF), an iron-chelating 80-kDa glycoprotein closely related in structure to iron transport protein transferrin, known as red protein. LF gene is highly conserved among various species and considered as one of the candidate genes for endometritis and mastitis resistance. This study aimed to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of lactoferrin gene and if there is any correlation between lactoferrin gene diversity and reproductive status of Egyptian buffaloes. A total of 150 buffaloes were subjected to ultrasonographic examination for diagnosis of fertility and reproductive disorders. Blood samples were collected from 88 fertile, 24 repeat breeder and 38 aneustrum buffaloes. Lactoferrin gene fragment of 301 bp was amplified from isolated DNA samples and PCR-RFLP was performed on the amplified fragment using EcoRI restriction enzymes. Purified PCR amplicons of different electrophoresis patterns were sequenced in both directions using forward and reverse primers. The sequences results were analyzed using NCBI BLASTn and BioEdit Sequence Alignment software. Phylogenetic analysis using UPGMA tree construction for each gene was constructed with consensus sequences. Two alleles of lactoferrin gene; A and B were detected in examined buffaloes. Genotype AA represented with 61.9% and 38.1% in fertile and infertile buffaloes respectively, while the AB genotype was detected with 54.54% and 45.5% in fertile and infertile one. Lactoferrin genotype (AA) showed significant increase in normal fertile animals (P=0.006) in comparison to anestrum and repeat breeder animals. Sequence analysis of both normal and polymorphic one shows point mutations (substitution A/C) in position 54 and 132. Statistically, our results showed significant correlation between the two genotypes of lactoferrin gene (AA and AB) and buffalo reproductive status (fertile and infertile). UPGMA analysis, revealed that the Egyptian buffalo sequence (KX228134.1) was closer to Bubalus bubalis (EU192148.1) and (HM125146.1) sequences compared to those of hybrid cattle. The polymorphisms in lactoferrin gene detected in this study are selectively positive in relation to the improvement of fertility of Egyptian buffaloes. The recorded SNPs may be used as genetic marker for improving buffalo breeding based on marker assisted selection (MAS) programs. This study considered the 1st study on genetic polymorphism of lactoferrin gene in relation to fertility of Egyptian buffaloes. The SNPs in lactoferrin gene may considered as a useful genetic marker for buffalo breeding in Egypt.
Keywords: Buffaloes, Lactoferrin gene, Polymorphism, Sequencing and Fertility
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Improved Bivalent Live and Inactivated Clone 30 and Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine
Walaa Abd El-fatah, Basem M. Ahmed, Mohamed A. Abd El-Khaleck and Ahmed A. El-Sanousi
Abstract
Abstract
In this study, we prepared two new formulations of bivalent vaccine, live and inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle (Clone30 or Lasota) and infectious bronchitis virus strains. Inactivated vaccine was based on either the use of ISA71 VG oil (Seppic, France) or Gel01 polymer (Seppic, France) adjuvants. The prepared live vaccines were delivered via oral route in drinking water and the prepared inactivated vaccines were delivered via spray route and/ or subcutaneous injection in specific pathogen-free chickens. Cell-mediated and humeral immune responses were evaluated as well as challenge trial was carried out. Results showed that the use of live clone30 vaccine gave almost the same protective level as Lasota live vaccine without any adverse post-vaccinal reactions observed in live Lasota vaccination. In addition, the bivalent live vaccine produced the same results as the prepared monovalent live vaccines and the use of bivalent inactivated vaccine gave highly protective level like monovalent inactivated vaccines. The use of polymer Montanide adjuvant revealed that it can enhance the cell mediated immune response as indicated by lymphocyte blastogenesis assay and can induce protection against challenge with Newcastle disease and Infectious bronchitis viruses. The prepared clone30 live and inactivated vaccines found to be effective for vaccinating poultry against Newcastle disease. Also, the use of bivalent vaccine of Clone30 and Infectious bronchitis saved the cost and loads of multiple vaccinations and had an economic aspect. The current study demonstrates that Bivalent vaccines are better in saving the cost and load of multiple vaccinations and in case of inactivated vaccine use, polymer adjuvants may be applied via the spray route permitting mass application, this will add value to improve the vaccination strategies against ND and Infectious bronchitis viruses.
Keywords: Clone30, Bivalent, Adjuvant, Polymer, Infectious bronchitis virus
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Effects of Feeding Diets Supplemented with Different Levels of L-Carnitine on Growth Performance, Serum Metabolites, Histopathological Changes in Growing Japanese Quails
Rania E Mahmoud, Gehad E Elshopakey and Walaa F Awadin
Abstract
Abstract
Under normal conditions, the endogenous L-carnitine (LC) synthesis together with its dietary intake is sufficient. However, in cases of increased metabolic rate, as in fasting-growth broilers, the energy demands are elevated and LC availability becomes a limiting factor for oxidative metabolism. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of LC at different levels on growth performance, carcass traits, blood biochemistry, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant profile and histopathology in growing Japanese quail. Two hundred day-old healthy Japanese quails were fed either basal diet containing no LC (control group) or the basal diet plus 200, 400 and 600mg/kg of LC. There is no significant impact of increasing levels of LC dietary supplementation from 200 to 600mg/kg on growth performance, carcass traits, levels of serum enzymes and albumin in growing quails. However, 600 mg LC/kg supplementation significantly increased levels of serum high density lipoprotein (HDL), total protein, globulin, immunoglobulin-G (IgG), lysozyme, bactericidal activity and tissue catalase (in liver and muscles) and significantly decreased levels of serum triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) (in liver and muscles). Histopathological examination revealed that dietary 600 mg/kg LC increased lymphocytes population in spleen, significantly increased duodenal villous height (VH) and decreased crypt depth (CD) and subsequently increased VH/CD ratio. In conclusion, supplementation of 600mg/kg of LC to diet of growing quails had no significant effect on growth performance, carcass traits however, this level decreased lipid peroxidation, had antioxidant effect and increased immunity.
Keywords: L-carnitine, growth performance, serum metabolites, growing quail
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Pathogenicity of Avian Salmonellae in Specific Pathogen Free Chicks
Salem Soliman, Sahar Zou El-Fakar, Youssef Ibrahim Youssef, Jakeen El-Jakee and Ahmed Adel Seida
Abstract
Abstract
In the present study we investigated the pathogenicity of the isolated salmonellae to one day old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks. The selected isolates were based on the most antibiotic resistance strains. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that 46% of the isolated salmonellae were resistant to amoxicillin, 52% to ampicillin, 46 % to cefotaxime, 86% to ciprofloxacin, 82% to clindamycin, 64% to doxycycline, 74% to erythromycin, 62% to gentamicin, 96% to lincomycin, 54% to neomycin, 92% to norfloxacin, 22% to oxytetracycline and 18% to streptomycin. Two hundred and ten, one day old SPF chicks were used to determine clinical signs and mortality caused by Salmonella isolates; Newport, Kentucky, Enteritidis, Infantis, Derby and Typhimurium isolated from broiler poultry flocks. Re isolation of salmonellae was done from dead birds of each groups, (samples taken from each dead chick were liver, heart, spleen and intestine samples). Every week, 5 serum samples were taken randomly from each group for serological test to determine salmonella antibody for each serotype.
Keywords: Salmonella, Chicken, Antibiotic, Pathogenicity, Serology
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Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Feline Orthopedic Surgery
Mwangi WE
Abstract
Abstract
A one-year old male domestic cat was presented due to leg-carrying lameness that had occurred following trauma, sustained two weeks before presentation. Clinical examination under medetomidine hydrochloride 0.08 mg/kg administered intramuscularly revealed swelling and crepitation over the right femur. Radiographic examination revealed a transverse diaphyseal femoral fracture that needed surgical intervention. Twenty-four hours later, atropine sulfate (0.04 mg/kg) and medetomidine hydrochloride (0.08 mg/kg) were administered for premedication while anaesthesia was induced using ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) each drug administered intramuscularly. Epidural lidocaine at 4mg/kg was injected 13 minutes after induction. The technique provided anaesthesia characterized by stable cardiopulmonary function, good muscle relaxation and post-operative analgesia. Despite painful manipulations, no additional anesthetics were required intraoperatively. Hind limb paralysis persisted about one hour following the surgery. This anaesthesia protocol can therefore be used in cats undergoing hind limb fracture reduction and fixation more so in high anaesthetic risk patients or where inhalation anaesthesia is unavailable.
Keywords: Cat, Medetomidine, Ketamine, Epidural Lidocaine, Analgesia, Muscle relaxation
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Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Gene Polymorphism in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with Subclinical Mastitis
Claro N Mingala, Anna Marinella P Wy, Daryl G Dela Cruz, Ermyn D Ermitanio, Paula Blanca V Gaban, Darlene Fe P Castro
Abstract
Abstract
The study identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the alpha-2-macroglobulin (?2M) gene in water buffaloes with subclinical mastitis and examined its association with its somatic cell score (SCS) via the somatic cell count (SCC) as an indication of presence of absence of mastitis. Buffy coat was separated from the blood samples and was used to extract the genomic DNA. ?2M gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using a designed primer pair. DNA sequences were aligned with the available sequences in the GenBank and analyzed for presenvce of SNPs. Result showed that there was a SNP identified along the c.207G>A. However, there was no significant association of the identified SNP with SCS but it can be described as that, the SNP identified was more related to water buffaloes with greater SCS but it does not guarantee exclusivity of it to animals with lesser resistance to mastitis. Thus, possibly, SNP in this region does not cause functional mutation against resistance.
Keywords: alpha-2-macroglobulin (?2m); Somatic cell score; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Water buffalo
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Immune Potentiating Effect of Bee Venom on Humoral Parameters of Innate Immunity in Broiler Chickens
Raheel IAR, Orabi A, Hala SH Salam and Hany Gaber
Abstract
Abstract
To date the medicinal therapeutic use of honeybee products, consisting of honey, propolis, royal jelly, pollen, beeswax and, in particular, bee venom has grown, so the aims of this work were to monitoring and determination it immune-modulatory effect mainly innate immunity parameters in broilers chickens. In the current study cytokines determination as IL6 and INF-? after injection of BV in different concentration 2%, 3%, and 4%, the IL6 show fair value and long durations in 2nd gp which injected with 3% BV were 23.4, 22.6 and 21.8; pg/ml respectively and also INF-? values were 289,294 and 277 at 12,19 and 26 days of age, confirming our trials by measuring of nitric oxide and lysozyme which also show the following value 18.4, 20.3 and 22.3 µmol/ml for nitric oxide and 4.5, 4.4 and 4.3 µg/ml for lysozyme In the 2nd gp with 3% BV, however the 4th gp that not injected showed low value of measured cytokines, nitric oxide and lysozyme, that mean excellent immune-potentiating concentration of bee venom in broilers chickens was 3% conc.
Keywords: Bee venom, Cytokines, IL6, INF-?, Nitric oxide, Lysozyme, Broilers chickens
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Receipt of Medical and Preventive Preparations against Animal Anemia and their Use in Pig Farm
Leila Japaridze, Tsiala Gabelia, Eter Salukvadze, Nana Osipova, Tamar Kvernadze and Omar Lomtadze
Abstract
Abstract
Research goal was obtaining of ant stress, ecologically clean preparation with high bio-accessibility (bio-digestibility) and low toxicity intended for oral administration, and determination of prospects of its use in the area of live-stock farming (namely pig breeding). Manufacturing method of mentioned preparation is elaborated, which foresees the use of freshly-prepared iron carbonate paste synthesized via interaction of FeCl2·4H2O and NaHCO3 as a source of main active component – Iron (II); interaction of iron carbonate and cobalt chloride with complex formation with monosaccharide D-Fructose having hemo-stimulating properties; concentrating of complex solutions up to syrup consistency; its extraction from reaction area in the free state using alcohol-ether mixture, its treatment with acetone, ether, and drying in vacuum conditions; infraction of complex mixtures containing certain quantities of Fe(II) Fructose and Co(II) Fructose with aqueous Askan-clay (through ultrasonic material dispersion); preparation of water suspension, its drying, grinding, manufacturing of solid form of preparation for oral administration. The preparation manufactured by mentioned method contains (in mass %): Fe(II)- Fructoze 15.75-31.6, [Fe(II)- 3.75-7.50], Co(II)-Fructose 0.28, [Co(II)-0.07], natural Askan-clay 68.2-36.5. The offered method provides getting of highly digestible, functional targeted product with maximum content of Fe(II). Therapeutic and preventive efficiency of manufactured preparation was tested on animals under study, namely on store pigs (toxicity of preparation was preliminary tested on laboratory white rats). Experiment result was expressed in getting rid of complications (iron deficiency anemia, diarrhea-dyspepsia) caused by stress factors related to termination of breast feeding of store pigs and food change, as well as in their normal growth and development, normal blood chemistry values and live weight gain.
Keywords: Antianemic Fe(II)-complex, Bentonite, Application in pig breeding
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Recent Development on Potential Use of Intravaginal Electrical Impedance in Female Farm Animal Reproduction- A Review
Tefera Yilma
Abstract
Abstract
Electrical impedance is one of the useful techniques that can be applied for monitoring of reproductive activities such as estrus cycle related changes of the genital tract, pregnancy, pending parturition, and postpartum resumption of ovarian luteal cyclicity in female farm animals. This paper reviews research findings that have been accomplished during the past few decades in this area of research. Values of electrical impedance that have been measured in the vagina and vulva during the estrous cycle show significant variation, not only between organs but also different locations of these reproductive organs and among farm animal species. Findings of several studies indicate that changes in the intra-vaginal and vulvar electrical impedance are associated with the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)-peak during the estrus period; low values of intra-vaginal electrical impedance (IEI) coincided with the pre-ovulatory LH-peak at the height of standing heat. Similarly, the changes in the measurement values of electrical impedance significantly correlated with plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol-17? during the pre- and estrus period. Similar relationship was also evident between peri-parturient changes in intra-vaginal electrical impedance and plasma concentrations of estradiol-17? and progesterone. Findings of several studies suggest the potential use of intra-vaginal and vulvar electrical impedance to predict the optimal time for artificial insemination during the estrus period and to diagnose early pregnancy. Some research findings also indicate the possibility of using vaginal and vulvar bio-impedance technique to predict imminent calving, and determine postpartum reproductive disorders as well as resumption of ovarian luteal cyclicity.
Keywords: Electrical impedance, Estrous cycle, Parturition, Pregnancy, Vagina
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Evaluation of Physico-Chemical Properties and Nutrient Components of Dairy Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Milk Collected during Early Lactation
Michelle M Balbin, Jonathan V Lazaro, Clarice R Candelaria, Jerome G Cuasay, Nancy S Abes and Claro N Mingala
Abstract
Abstract
The study determined the physico-chemical properties and nutrient component of dairy water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk collected during early lactation. Specifically, it determined the association of the physicochemical properties and milk composition to physiological parameters (age, number of parity, history of mastitis) of the animals. Results showed that the properties of the buffalo milk collected during the early lactation have gravity of 1.033 % titratable acidity of 0.14% and pH 6.63. Alcohol precipitation test for protein stability was positive. MBRT was 7 hours which means that the quality of milk was excellent. The mean milk components of dairy buffaloes were as follows: fat was 6.17%, protein was 4.56%, lactose was 4.73%, total solid (TS) was 15.53 % and solid not fat (SNF) was 9.36 % while the mean somatic cell count was 122 x 1000 cell/ml. Among the physiological parameters, history of mastitis was significantly associated with pH and % lactose, parity was significantly associated with protein stability and age was significantly associated with % fat and % TS.
Keywords: Milk quality, Physico-chemical properties, Milk composition, Early lactation, Water buffalo
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FNDC5 Gene Expression in the Smooth Muscles of Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)
Doaa Kirat, Taku Miyasho, Tahany Amin, Amira Moustafa and Mohamed Hamada
Abstract
Abstract
Irisin is a recently reported adipo-myokine. It is synthesized after the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor, fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) prior to its release into the circulation. Currently, it is unknown whether irisin/FNDC5 exists in the tissues of camel species. Our findings demonstrated for the first time the existence of mRNA transcripts for FNDC5 gene in the dromedary camel smooth muscles, as determined by RT-PCR analysis and showed predominant localization of irisin/FNDC5 protein in the visceral and vascular smooth muscle cells of dromedary camels, as assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. The present study suggests that irisin/FNDC5 possibly has physiological role(s) in the contractility and motility of the camel intestinal smooth muscle cells as well as it might be implicated in the maintenance and control of blood pressure in camels. These important factors could contribute to the distinct biological characteristics of dromedary camels for adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.
Keywords: FNDC5, Camels, Blood vessels, Blood pressure, Cellular localization, Small intestine
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Optimization of Serological Diagnostic Methods for Rapid Field Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Antigen and Antibodies in Natural Infected Bovine Specimens
GSG Zeedan, AM Abdalhamed, TK Farag, MK El-Bayoumy, AH Mahmoud and KA Abd EL-Razik
Abstract
Abstract
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important highly contiguous transboundary animal’s disease, infecting cloven-hoofed species. It is endemic in Egypt where three different virus serotypes are present (O, A, and SAT 2). Detection of FMD virus antigens and antibodies is an essential cornerstone, for controlling and preventing recurrent FMD. Developing of diagnostic tools for rapid, easily performed in the field for FMDV detection is important for controlling a FMD outbreak and containing its spread. The present study aimed to determine the FMD virus in clinical field samples collected from bovine during FMD outbreak in 2017 in Egypt by improving and developing a rapid field test for detection FMD antigen or antibodies. The study includes detection of FMD virus in 46 tongue epithelium biopsies and vesicles fluid collected from naturally infected cattle and buffaloes. 180 serum samples were collected from cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goat during FMD outbreaks in 2017. Tongue epithelium, saliva and infected cell culture fluid used for developing rapid slide immune-agglutination test (RSIAT), 3ABC tube immune-chromogenic (TIC-3ABC) test and Latex agglutination test (LAT) compared with commercial 3ABC-ELISA. FMD antigen serotypes were detected in 18(39.1%) and 22(47.8%) tissue biopsy, saliva and fluid vesicles examined by LAT and ELISA tests. However, 18 (39.1%) positive samples by RSIAT and only 16 (34.7%) samples positive by TIC, all those tests used specific FMD virus type’s antisera mono and polyclonal. RSIAT showed sensitivity 81.8% and specificity 87.5% with accuracy 91.3% and LAT test showed sensitivity 95.4% and specificity 95.8% with accuracy 97.3% while, TIC showed sensitivity 72.7% and specificity 65.2% with accuracy 86.9% comparing S-ELISA sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 96.4% with accuracy 97.8%. The results of RSIAT using staphylococcal agglutination test (SPA) and TIC-3ABC-test were similar to those obtained with 3ABC-ELISA. RSIAT, LAT, and TIC-3ABC revealed nearly the same results of TIC-3ABC and commercial 3ABC-ELISA in a parallel manner to confirm each other. Detecting FMD antibodies by 3ABC-ELISA were found to be consumed long time (8 hours), while the RSIAT test needs a very short time (1-5 minutes). Also, TIC-3ABC showed titers similar to those obtained by 3ABC-ELISA for detection of FMDV antibody. It was noticed that the highest antigen or antibody titers showed strong agglutination while weak agglutination was noticed with lower titers. It is concluded that RSIAT is rapid; sensitive and accurate field test for detection FMDV antigen and antibody.
Keywords: FMD, Rapid slide immune-agglutination test, Latex agglutination test, ELISA, 3ABC-ELISA, Bovine, cattle, TICT
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Seasonal Variation in Number of Ovarian Follicles and Hormonal Levels in Egyptian Buffalo and Cattle
Ahmed S Abdoon, Mahmoud Z Attia, Seham S Soliman, Omaima M Kandil, Nahed E El-Toukhey and Hussein A Sabra
Abstract
Abstract
Egypt is one of the potentially vulnerable countries on the effect of Global Warming. Low conceptive productivity in buffaloes and cattle cause serious economic losses as a result of heat stress. The present work was designed to evaluate the effect of the season (hot or cold season) on reproductive performance and hormonal changes in buffalo and cattle. Blood samples and genital tract were collected from buffalo and native cattle slaughtered at local abattoir during the cold (October to March, n=204 and 60, for buffalo and cattle, respectively) and hot season (April to September, n= 196 and 69 for buffalo and cattle, respectively). Morphological characters of ovaries including the presence of corpora lutea (CL) and the number of ovarian antral follicles were evaluated. According to their morphology for the presence of CL or follicles, ovaries were divided into luteal phase, follicular phase, and smooth inactive ovaries. Serum progesterone (P4), estradiol-17ß (E2), Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) concentrations were determined in serum using enzyme immune-assay. The person correlation coefficient between the concentration of AMH and number of follicles was determined. Results indicated that during the hot season, the concentration of P4, E2, T3 and T4 in both buffaloes and cattle were significantly (P<0.05) decreased when compared with cold season. Also, AMH significantly (P<0.05) decreased during hot than the cold season, and there was a highly significant positive correlation between AMH concentrations during hot and cold season and the number of ovarian follicles in buffalo and cattle. However, the stage of the cycle (Luteal or follicular) doesn't affect the correlation between AMH and the number of follicles in buffalo and cattle. In conclusion, hot season impair the reproductive efficiency in buffalo and cattle by decreasing the incidence of smooth inactive ovaries through its direct effect on ovarian steroid and AMH production as well as the thyroid hormones. Keywords: Cattle and buffalo, Season, Ovarian activity, Thyroid hormones, AMH, E2 and P4
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The Effect of Cephardine on Clinicopathological Pictures of Experimental Salmonella Enteritidis and E. coli Infections in Broiler Chickens
GA Abdel-Alim and Kawkab A Ahmed
Abstract
Abstract
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cepharidine on clinical and pathological pictures, of E. coli infection (colisepticaemia) in broiler chickens and S. Eteritidis infection. Three weeky-old meat type chicks (n=100) allotted into 5 equal groups (1-5) with 2 replicates of 10 each were used in this study. Duration of the experiment extended from one day of age up to slaughter (42 days). The birds fed mash diet for 3 phases: starter (1-14 days), grower (15-28 days) and finisher (29-35 days). For experimental induction of colisepticaemia; experimented chickens of groups 1and 2 were subcutaneously infected with 4.5×106 CFU/ml/bird of E. coli serogroup O1in PBS. Birds of group 3 and 4 were oraly inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis in a dose of 4×105 CFU/ml/bird. Those of group 5 were kept without infection as negative control group. Cepharidine supplementation to E. coli and Salmonella infected broiler chickens improved reduced clinical, both gross and histopathological lesion scores. Conclusively; Ceharidine treatment could play a positive role in controlling of colisepticaemia and S.Enteritidis infection in Broiler Chickens.
Keywords: Cephardine, Salmonella Enteritidis, E. coli, Broiler Chickens
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Effect of Reproductive Status and Season on Blood Biochemical, Hormonal and Antioxidant Changes in Egyptian Buffaloes
Ahmed Sabry S Abdoon, Mahmoud Z Attia, Nahed E El-Toukhey, Omaima M Kandil, Hussein A Sabra and Seham S Soliman
Abstract
Abstract
Egypt is one of the potentially vulnerable countries on the effect of Global Warming. Low conceptive productivity in buffaloes and cattle cause serious economic losses as a result of heat stress. The present work was designed to evaluate the effect of the season (hot or cold season) on reproductive performance and hormonal changes in buffalo and cattle. Blood samples and genital tract were collected from buffalo and native cattle slaughtered at local abattoir during the cold (October to March, n=204 and 60, for buffalo and cattle, respectively) and hot season (April to September, n= 196 and 69 for buffalo and cattle, respectively). Morphological characters of ovaries including the presence of corpora lutea (CL) and the number of ovarian antral follicles were evaluated. According to their morphology for the presence of CL or follicles, ovaries were divided into luteal phase, follicular phase, and smooth inactive ovaries. Serum progesterone (P4), estradiol-17ß (E2), Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) concentrations were determined in serum using enzyme immune-assay. The person correlation coefficient between the concentration of AMH and number of follicles was determined. Results indicated that during the hot season, the concentration of P4, E2, T3 and T4 in both buffaloes and cattle were significantly (P<0.05) decreased when compared with cold season. Also, AMH significantly (P<0.05) decreased during hot than the cold season, and there was a highly significant positive correlation between AMH concentrations during hot and cold season and the number of ovarian follicles in buffalo and cattle. However, the stage of the cycle (Luteal or follicular) doesn't affect the correlation between AMH and the number of follicles in buffalo and cattle. In conclusion, hot season impair the reproductive efficiency in buffalo and cattle by decreasing the incidence of smooth inactive ovaries through its direct effect on ovarian steroid and AMH production as well as the thyroid hormones. Keywords: Cattle and buffalo, Season, Ovarian activity, Thyroid hormones, AMH, E2 and P4
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Zoonotic Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infections and their Potential Reservoirs: A Review
Shepelo Getrude Peter
Abstract
Abstract
Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infections are diseases caused by pathogens in the family anaplasmataceae. Despite majority of the species not been of zoonotic importance, A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis are of serious public health concern and cause severe economic losses. The difficulty in their diagnosis due to unspecific clinical signs as well as limitation in diagnostic techniques in resource poor regions have resulted in underreporting and misdiagnosis. Consequently, there has been limited epidemiological information of these important infections in these regions. Livestock and especially cattle have been documented as the potential domestic reservoir but due to the limited knowledge on the extent of these infection, communities continue to engage in risky practices that predispose them to these infections. This paper reviewed literature from the main databases; Google scholar, HINARI, AGORA and Pubmed using keywords to establish the research gaps especially in the tropics that needs to be addressed so as to improve our understanding of these important tick-borne zoonosis. The major finding is the limited information on the extent of infection of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis in both cattle and humans in the tropics, and lack of clarity on the actual tick species responsible for the transmission in the tropics. In conclusion, there is need to improve our understanding on the epidemiology of these life-threatening zoonosis, so as to enable physicians include them among their differential diagnosis of the febrile conditions. Moreover, effective prevention and control is anchored on vector and reservoir identification, therefore the need for clarification on these aspects.
Keywords: Zoonosis, Tick-borne, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Cattle
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In vitro Study of Antifungal Activity of Averrhoa bilimbi Extracts against Candida species
Maslan Juman, Muhammad Luqman Nordin, Erkihun Aklilu Woldegiorgis, Syafiq Azri Zulkiple and Rumaizi Shaari
Abstract
Abstract
Averrhoa bilimbi is mostly known as cucumber tree or bilimbi often used by the traditional practitioner in the treatment of hypertension, pyrexia, diabetes mellitus and antimicrobial. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of Averrhoa bilimbi fruits and leaves extracts against the pathogenic Candida species which lead to Candidiasis. An in vitro study was conducted to determine the antifungal activity of extracts from a different part of Averrhoa bilimbi plant against the Candida species. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts originated from the fruits and leaves of Averrhoa bilimbi plant were prepared to determine its antifungal activity against the fungi species of Candida family. The pathogenic, commensal Candida species was obtained by culturing samples of hair pluck, skin scrap, oral swab and a vaginal swab from free-roamer cats onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media. Aqueous and ethanolic extraction of fruits and leaves were prepared. Then, the qualitative phytochemical analyses was done to detect the presence of secondary metabolite compounds such as saponins, flavanoids, tannins, and phenols which it was believed to contribute to the antifungal property. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was performed for the antifungal sensitivity test and sterile disc impregnated with different dilution of concentration of the extracts product were prepared and inoculated inside an incubator for about 24 to 48 hours on Mueller-Hilton Agar media containing lawn culture of Candida species. The results showed presence of inhibition zone around the disc soaked with different concentration of plant extracts indicating of positive antifungal activity towards the Candida species. Besides, the fruits extract possessed larger inhibition zone compared to the leaves extract. In a nutshell, these positive outcomes proved that there was an evidence of antifungal property of both fruits and leaves part of Averrhoa bilimbi plant that was susceptible towards Candida species.
Keywords: In vitro study, Antifungal activity, Antifungal resistance, Candida species, Averrhoa bilimbi plant extracts, Phytochemical compounds
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Anti-Obesity Synergistic Effect of Pomegranate Seed Oil (PSO) and Arabic Gum (AG) in Albino Rats
Sherif S. Mohamed and Abdel-Hameed M. Fayed
Abstract
Abstract
Obesity has become a global concern worldwide, incidence of obesity is more likely in developing countries. Punicic acid (PA) is the major fatty acids proportion in PSO, it possesses numerous health benefits. On other hand, dietary fibers induce satiation, remodeling motility of gastric emptying and even lead to control body weight. AG blocked glucose absorption of intestine, this current investigation studies the anti-obesity effect PSO and AG integration on induced obese albino rats by high fat diet (HFD). Forty Dawley male rats (149±16g) allocated into: G1- standard group: rats fed normal standard diet, G2- HFD group: rats fed on a high fat diet, G3- HFD+ PSO group: rats fed on HDF and received PSO (2 ml/kg of BW daily), G4- HFD+ AG group: rats fed on HDF incorporated with Arabic Gum (5%) and G5- HFD+PSO+AG group: rats fed on HFD and received (PSO and AG) as previous varied ratio. Co-administration of PSO+AG reduced body weight gain, suppressing intestinal glucose absorption, improve lipid profile, its effect on gut hormone secretion plus antioxidant activity. It concluded that anti-obesity benefits make PSO & AG are useful combination in controlling body weight gain or treat obesity.
Keywords: Pomegranate seed oil, Arabic Gum, High fat diet, Leptin, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease
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Evaluation of Immunity System in Newborns Pigs from Sow with Various Degrees of Immunological Load
Alexander Agarkov, Angelina Shulunova, Irina Nekrasova, Alexander Sidelnikov, Nikolai Agarkov
Abstract
Abstract
It was found that the level of nonspecific resistance of the organism and adaptive potential to environmental conditions are interdependent and interdependent. Therefore, the study of these mechanisms has the ultimate goal of justifying the intensity of the body’s defense. Aim of this study is investigating the characteristics of the formation of immunobiological status in the offspring of the early postnatal period, depending on the immunological load of sows. Two groups of animals were divided; the first group is from a sow with intensive immunological load, the second is from a sow with low antigenic stimulation. Blood sampling was carried out before feeding, on 1, 5, 12 and 30 postnatal days. Analysis of peripherial immune cells shows the killer activity of T-lymphocytes and the production of interleukins are reduced in new borns compared to adults. In T-lymphocytes, 50-65% of a newborn are T-helpers carrying CD4 molecules, and 25-30% have a CD8 T-phenotype. T cells respond to infectious antigens (see Immunity and infection). However, the level of cytokine production is reduced. B-cell system of the newborn. High content of B-lymphocytes in the umbilical cord blood of the newborn is detected. level of B-lymphocytes carrying differentiating antigens CD19, CD22 in newborns is slightly higher than in adults. Piglets obtained from the second group up to one month of age had reduced quantitative and percentage indicators of immunobiological status in compared with piglets of the first group. The results of studies on the formation of the immune system of the body of newborn animals indicate that protective forces are a dynamic indicator, and is determined by the immune specificity and antigenic load on the mother’s body. This circumstance allows you to directionally influence the formation and manifestation of the body’s defenses.
Keywords: Immuno-pathological Mechanisms, Immuno-rehabilitation, Reactivity, Sensitivity, Pregnant animals, Newborn piglets
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Impact of Communal Cattle Farming Practices on Meat Safety in Central Bushbuckridge, South Africa
DV Nkosi, JL Bekker and LC Hoffman
Abstract
Abstract
Communal farming practices and the release of meat in rural areas of developing countries remains important in ensuring meat safety. Given the uncontrolled slaughter of cattle communally farmed at central Bushbuckridge, this study focused on farming practices that may have a negative impact on meat safety. A structured questionnaire, based on interviews of 76 communal farmers, revealed variability in responses when the frequencies observed were tested for uniform distribution (Chi-square test; P<0.05). The results indicated the main reason for keeping cattle was for commercial purposes (93.4%), including trade with other farmers, the public and unregistered slaughter facility owners. All cattle were free roaming in unfenced areas and within households. Before sick animals died, 42% of farmers would slaughter them to recover costs. The study concluded that some cattle farming practices were likely to impact negatively on the production of healthy animals and safe meat. Keywords: Bovine animals, Communal farming, Illegal slaughter, Veterinary public health
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Phytochemical Constituent, HPLC Profiling and Antioxidant Activity of Passiflora incarnata and Arctium lappa Leaves Extracts
Khattab A Elghobashy, Mohamed M Eldanasoury, Abdelmonsef A Elhadary and Mohamed Farid
Abstract
Abstract
Chemical evaluated of some bio extracts as follows: Phytochemical screening, Total Polyphenols and Flavonoids content were determined in Passiflora incarnata and Arctium lappa leaves. Bio extracts were shown through color analysis containing phytochemical compounds such as (Terpens, Tannins, Flavonoids, Saponins, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Ph. Glycosides and Resins). Passiflora incarnata leaves have the highest of total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, which were 133.7mgGAE/g and 19.03mgQE/g, followed by Arctium lappa leaves, which were 128.5mgGAE/g and 16.05mgQE/g, respectively. Antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts were determined using (FRAP and DPPH), The aqueous and methanolic extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves, have the highest of reducing power which were 198.79 and 210.51%, at the concentrations of 40mg/ml, respectively. Followed by aqueous and methanolic extract of and Arctium lappa leaves, which were 159.31 and 177.06%, at the same concentration. Also, when using (DPPH), of the same plant leaves, the IC50 value were 0.006 and 0.009 of aqueous extract, at the concentrations of 40mg/ml, respectively. While, the IC50 value were 0.004 and 0.007 of methanolic extract, at the same concentrations, respectively.
Keywords: Plant extracts, Phytochemical analysis, HPLC and Antioxidant activity
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Effect of Avian Influenza (Subtype H9N2) on the Pathogenesis and Virulence of Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken under Experimental Co-Infection
Dalia S. Ibrahim, Ahmed A Elsanousi, Ayman H El Deeb, A Arafa1 and Abdullah A Selim
Abstract
Abstract
In this study, the effect of coinfection of avian influenza (subtype H9N2) on the pathogenesis and virulence of vNDV was investigated. In co-infection experiment, one strain of H9N2 by titer 106 EID50 and one strain of vNDV by titer 103 EID50 were used. In experimental design, 70 specific pathogen free chicks (four weeks old) were grouped into 7 groups (G1-G7) ten birds/group. Group 1 was uninfected control group, group 2 and 3 were positive control for H9N2 and vNDV respectively, group 4 infected firstly with vNDV and after 3days it was infected by H9N2 and vice versa in group 5 while in group 6 two studied viruses were inoculated simultaneously. The birds in group 7 were infected firstly by H9N2 and after 14 days were infected with vNDV. The obtained results showed that the mortality due to vNDV infection (G 3) and in group 7 started from 6 Days post infection (DPI) and reached 100% at 9DPI, while the mortalities started at 2 DPI in G4 and at 4DPI in G5,6 also the mortalities were reached 100% at 6,7,8DPI in G4,5and 6. The vNDV shedding in control group (G3); G7; G6 and G4 started at 2DPI by titer 102//bird and it reached to 104/bird at 6DPI. While the vNDV shedding in group5 was reduced by 40% at 2DPI and at 4DPI the all tested birds were considered shedder by titer 5X105/bird. This study concluded that H9N2 prior infection interfere with pathogenesis and virulence of second vNDV infection while no significant interference in post or simultaneous infection.
Keywords: H9N2, Velogenic NDV, Coinfection, Pathogenesis, Virulence
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Aggregate-resistant Vitamin-mineral Complex based on Selenium; Comparative Effectiveness in Poultry Farming against the Technological Stress
Olga Sevostyanova, Vladimir Orobets, Alexander Agarkov, Natalya Fedota, Inna Klimanovich
Abstract
Abstract
Chemical evaluated of some bio extracts as follows: Phytochemical screening, Total Polyphenols and Flavonoids content were determined in Passiflora incarnata and Arctium lappa leaves. Bio extracts were shown through color analysis containing phytochemical compounds such as (Terpens, Tannins, Flavonoids, Saponins, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Ph. Glycosides and Resins). Passiflora incarnata leaves have the highest of total polyphenols and flavonoids contents, which were 133.7mgGAE/g and 19.03mgQE/g, followed by Arctium lappa leaves, which were 128.5mgGAE/g and 16.05mgQE/g, respectively. Antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts were determined using (FRAP and DPPH), The aqueous and methanolic extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves, have the highest of reducing power which were 198.79 and 210.51%, at the concentrations of 40mg/ml, respectively. Followed by aqueous and methanolic extract of and Arctium lappa leaves, which were 159.31 and 177.06%, at the same concentration. Also, when using (DPPH), of the same plant leaves, the IC50 value were 0.006 and 0.009 of aqueous extract, at the concentrations of 40mg/ml, respectively. While, the IC50 value were 0.004 and 0.007 of methanolic extract, at the same concentrations, respectively.
Keywords: Organic stimulants, Nanoparticles, Industrial poultry farming, Cobb-500 cross, Feed conversion, Organic agriculture
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A Retrospective Study of the Incidence, Age, Breed Predisposition and Types of Fractures in Household Dogs in Nairobi County, Kenya
EK Serem and JD Mande
Abstract
Abstract
A retrospective study was conducted between January 2014 and September 2016 within Nairobi County, Kenya and its environs to determine the prevalence of appendicular bone fractures in household dogs. Dogs being popular companion animals worldwide, have led to an increased number of dogs being kept as pets, thus, making them vulnerable to appendicular bone fractures. A study was conducted to determine the incidences and spatial distribution of appendicular bone fractures among household dogs. A total of 220 cases of fractures were randomly collected from veterinary clinics within the study area through retrieving all case records between January 2014 and September 2016. The overall incidence of bone fracture was 15% and the prevalence of the appendicular bone fractures was 76%. Highest bone fracture was recorded in males (62%), 7-14 months of age (33%), femur (22%) and medium breeds of dogs (6-10kgs) (41%). The principle cause of appendicular bone fractures was observed to be vehicle accidents at 40%. The therapeutic intervention employed included external and internal fixation techniques, Plaster of Paris and intramedullary pins. Secondary infection, non-compliance of the owner, mal-union, non-union, cast bandage, plates and pin dehiscence’s, cost implications and death of the patients during surgery were among the most observed bone fracture management challenges. This study concluded that household dogs sustain appendicular bone fractures, hence, there is need to encourage adoptions of digital modes of data storage, improve on surgical skills via targeted training, improve on facilities and provision of necessary surgical instruments, and encourage specializations among the veterinary professionals.
Keywords: Dogs, Appendicular Bone Fracture, Study, Prevalence
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Intestinal Parasites Found in Fecal Samples of Wild Cats of Costa Rica
Misael Chinchilla-Carmona, Idalia Valerio-Campos, Gustavo A. Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Sofía Soto-Fournier, Juan Carlos Vanegas-Pissa, Roberto Salom-Pérez and Stephanny Arroyo-Arce
Abstract
Abstract
A parasitological study of 623 fecal samples of 616 wild felines or of 65 in cautivity was performed. The samples came from the species Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis, Puma concolor y Leopardus wiedii and we found several evolutionary forms of at least one parasite, in 37% of the samples studied. This material was collected in 5 regions of Costa Rica, named as Chorotega, Central Pacific and Brunca from the littoral pacific, Huetar Atlántica from the Atlantic littoral and Huetar Norte in the North and a Central region in the center of the country. Most of the samples were found in littoral regions where there are more mountainous and wooded areas and a major percentage of parasite infection was observed in the Atlantic and Brunca regions. Eggs of Paragonimus sp., Toxocara sp., Alaria alata and larvae of Strongylids were found in the animals, independent if they were in captivity or not. Species of some of these Genera also infect human beings, therefore the importance of these findings for human health and of course, for the exuberant biodiversity of Costa Rica, is discussed.
Keywords: Parasites, Wild cats, Species, Costa Rica
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Bull Related Factors Affecting its Calf Sex Ratio in Naturally Bred Egyptian Native Buffalo
Karima Gh M Mahmoud, AM Sakr, Gamal A El-Sisy, MM Hegazy, M Nawito and Omaima H Ezzo
Abstract
Abstract
Bulls and climatic changes at the time of mating may influence offspring sex ratio. This survey was justified to judge the effect of year and month of mating as indicator to climatic temperature change on sex ratio of buffalo calves. Records from 413 buffalo bulls and their 1672 calves produced after mating from year 2000 to 2015 were collected. The data were analyzed for the effect of year and month of mating on the sex ratio using Chi-square test. The results showed that 15.01% of bulls had only female calves, 19.37%have only male calves and 65.62% of bulls have both male and female calves. The number of calves born using natural mating were 1672 from which 909 (54.4%) were males and 763 (45.6%) were females. The overall ratio (male/female) in all recorded years was 54: 46. It did not show a statistical variation for the effect of the year of mating. However, for the effect of mating month, there was a significant (P<0.01) increase in male calves during January, March, April, June, July, August and October. In conclusion, the total sex ratio did not show a statistical variation during 15 years. But increasing in male calves during the warm months and the coldest month of the year could be related to the resistance of male embryos to the adverse effect of climatic change in Egypt. This information is basic for buffalo breeder to take the effect of mating month in their consideration. Keywords: Buffalo bulls, Natural mating, Sex ratio, Climatic change
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Gross Anatomy and Ultrasonography of Spleen and Pancreas in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Cat (Felis catus domesticus)
Maher MA, Haithem AM Farghali, Alaa H Elsayed and Reem RT
Abstract
Abstract
The current investigation was performed on nine adult apparently healthy native breeds of rabbits and nine domestic cats of both sexes weighing about 2.800 – 3.500 kg. There were great differences in shape, length, thickness and weight of spleen and pancreas between both species. The spleen of rabbit only attached through gastrosplenic ligament while it was attached through gastrosplenic and splenopancreatic fold in cat. The splenic hilus divides the visceral surface into unequal portions in rabbits while into equal portions in cats. The pancreas was divided into three parts; left, right lobes and a body, where it was of compact type in cat but in rabbit only the body and left lobe were compact type while right lobe was of mesenteric type. The main pancreatic duct presents only in cat but the rabbit has only accessory pancreatic duct. The accessory pancreatic duct distribution in rabbit was never described in any of previous literatures, therefore the current description provides a novel guide to researchers afterwards. Sonographically, the spleen appeared small elongated mass hyperechoic to renal cortex in rabbit but long tongue-shaped isoechoic to renal cortex in cat. Meanwhile, the echogenic pancreatic parts were scanned in the left, right and middle mesogastric regions in rabbit, but in right medial epigastric and left paralumbar mesogastric regions in cat. The aim of the present study is to provide precise description of spleen and pancreas with its duct system which is critical for surgical guidance in small animal practice.
Keywords: Spleen, Pancreas, Ultrasonography, Rabbits and Cats
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In Vitro Maturation of Ovine Oocytes Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estradiol-17B, and Co-Culture of Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells (FTEC) in Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM-199)
Yon Soepri Ondho, Daud Samsudewa, Dela Ayu Lestari
Abstract
Abstract
This study was conducted to analyze the effect of FSH, estradiol-17ß, and co-culture of FTEC on ovine oocyte in vitro maturation. The material used was 2.290 oocytes taken from preantral follicles of 254 ovine ovaries. Study was carried out by testing four treatments: (T1) base medium (TCM-199, 5% FBS, NaHCO3), (T2) base medium + FSH, (T3) base medium + 17-? estradiol, and (T4) base medium + co-culture of FTEC. Result showed that percentage of mature oocyte (Metaphase II) in this study was 40.55%, 61.62%, 40.34% and 58.52% for T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that medium maturation treatments were highly significant different (P<0.01) on oocyte maturation (Metaphase II) percentage. The base medium containing FSH and base medium containing co-culture of FTEC are better medium than the base medium or medium supplemented with estradiol-17ß for ovine oocytes in vitro maturation. Keywords: Maturation, Medium, Oocyte, Preantral follicles, Ovine
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Development and Production of a Novel Bivalent Inactivated Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) Vaccine
Samah EA Abodalal and Tahoon AY
Abstract
Abstract
Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is a deadly threat to rabbit populations hurting livability with severe economic looses. During 2018 and 2019 a new variant RHDV2 emerged in some Egyptian governorates, causing a typical outbreaks in commercial rabbitries, with high mortality rates especially in suckling rabbits. Classical RHDV vaccines showed low cross protection against RHDV2, revealing the need for a new vaccination strategy was important to face the current RHD outbreaks. In this study the development and production of a novel bivalent inactivated RHDV vaccine was applied. three hundreds six weeks old, hybrid rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups; the first group (100 rabbits) was vaccinated with the prepared bivalent inactivated RHDV vaccine once in a dose of 0.5 ml per rabbit injected S?C (group 1), the second group (100 rabbits) was vaccinated twice with 14 days apart (boaster dose) (group 2), and the third group (100 rabbits) was kept unvaccinated as negative control (group 3). Clinical signs and mortality were monitored after challenge (performed 1 week post-vaccination, 2 WPV, 3WPV and 24 WPV). Blood samples have been collected at day 0 (before vaccination) up to 4 weeks post vaccination (WPV), every 2 weeks up to 10 weeks then every 4 weeks up to 24 WPV. In order to determine the antibody response against RHDVa and RHDV2 by Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. No clinical signs or adverse reactions were observed in the two vaccinated groups (1and 2) suggesting that the prepared bivalent RHDV vaccine was safe, potent and survived the experimental challenge where the mortality rate in the control group was higher. All animals from both vaccinated groups (1 and 2) showed clear seroconversion (Mean titers for RHDV HI antibodies higher than protective HI titer for RHDVa and RHDV2) beginning from seven days post vaccination. No significant differences were observed between HI titers among group 1 and group 2. These results revealing that the administration of single dose of the prepared bivalent RHDV vaccine was adequate and recommended, performing a challenge 7DPV. Furthermore, serological analysis demonstrated that the prepared bivalent vaccine was proved to be sterile, safe and potent protecting rabbits against 2 viruses (RHDVa and RHDV2) in one shot consequently saving time, efforts of labor and avoiding stress of rabbits during vaccination.
Keywords: RHDVa, RHDV2, Vaccine, Production, A novel, Bivalent, Rabbit
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