In Press Articles

Surgical Management of Bicornual Uterine Prolapse in a Siamese Cat: A Case Report
WK Kimani and SW Mbugua
Abstract
Abstract
Uterine prolapse is a rare condition in cats that can be managed by performing either an external hysterectomy or manual reduction followed by ovariohysterectomy. This article describes surgical management of bilateral uterine prolapse in a queen. A one year old female, pluriparous Siamese cat (Felis catus) with no past history of dystocia and weighing 2.8 kg was presented to Andys Veterinary hospital, Nairobi, Kenya with a protruding mass through the vulval. The queen had a history of recent queening and had delivered three kittens a week earlier. The owner noticed the protruding mass about 24 hours after the delivery of the last neonate. A few days later, the cat was not suckling the kittens well and was in appetent. As a sequel to this, two kittens died. After a week, the protruding mass had a pungent smell and the client presented the cat to the hospital. Complete bilateral uterine prolapse was diagnosed after a visual examination and palpation of the mass. The uterus was swollen, had necrotic areas and debris. Accordingly, a two staged ovariohysterectomy was opted for to manage the case. An internal ovariectomy was first done via a ventral midline celiotomy followed by an external hysterectomy. Post-operative management included pain medication and antibiotic therapy and the patient recovered well and was discharged after 2 days. The skin sutures were removed 10 days postoperatively. The cat recovered uneventfully with no further complications reported by the owner. In conclusion, this article shows that when the prolapsed uterus is swollen, damaged and necrotic, a two staged ovariohysterectomy should be the method of treatment and the outcome is good despite the duration of the condition.
Keywords: Felis catus, Bilateral uterine prolapse
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Flea Species Isolated from the Human and Animals: Prevalence and Ultrastructural Studies
Marwa M Attia Nagla MK Salaeh and Sohila M El-Gameel
Abstract
Abstract
Fleas are one of the insects that belong to the order Siphonaptera. They are a wingless, compressed laterally, and non-host specific insect parasitizing a wide range of hosts, so they able to transmit diseases from animals to human. This study aimed to identify the fleas in and around human and animals with their prevalence and ultrastructure study. Flea samples were collected from four governorates (Cairo; Giza; Fayoum and South Sinai); Egypt during the period from January 2017 to May 2018.One-hundred and twenty fleas were collected from five animals (donkeys, sheep, goats, dogs, and cats) surrounding humans. All the collected fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis (C. f. felis). All the animals were infested with C. f. felis with flea’s allergic dermatitis recorded in dogs, human, and donkeys, while goats and sheep showed anemic mucous membrane. The highest infestation was recorded in spring and summer. The morphological characters of 50 specimens were recorded and measured using the stereoscopic and light microscope as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ultramorphological characters of C.f. felis head, thorax, and abdomen with the genital organs of male and female were fully described. The antennae have three segments with the third one had several adhesive circular disks and numerous sensory hairs in antennal grooves. The maxillary palps were well developed with four segments which supported with sensory small hairs. The first genal comb is half of the second one or nearly equal to its length. These results about identification and prevalence studies were used to update the knowledge about the flea species present in investigated localities in Egypt; to detect the appropriate control measures which could be applied in flea’s infestation.
Keywords: Ctenocephalides felis felis, Flea allergic dermatitis, Siphonaptera, Prevalence, Ultrastructure
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Effect of Marjoram Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Immunological Indices in Broilers
Sherif Mohamed Shawky, Sahar Hassan Orabi and Ahmed Dawod
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Abstract
This study aimed to explore the effects of Marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immunity in broilers. A sixty of one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups; Chicks of group 1 were fed on basal diet considered as a control group, chicks of group 2 were fed on an experimental ration containing 2% marjoram. The results showed that the Marjoram significantly increase (P<0.05) some growth factors as body weight after 3rd, 4th and 5th weeks, weight gain at 3rd and 5th weeks, also significantly improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 3rd, 5th weeks in comparison with the control group. Also, Marjoram supplementation at the level of 2% caused a significant elevation (P?0.05) in gamma globulin, thus marjoram could be considered as an immunity enhancer for broilers. In conclusion, the present study proved that supplementation of the ration with Marjoram could improve growth performance and immunological state in broilers.
Keywords: Marjoram, Growth performance, Immunity, Broiler
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Bio-Pesticide Control of the Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in Egypt by using Two Entomopathogenic Fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae)
Mai Mohammed Abuowarda, Mounir Abdel Haleem, Magdy Elsayed, Heba Farag and Sara Magdy
Abstract
Abstract
The current study examined the potential use of entomopathogenic fungi to control infestation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Examination of 514 dogs admitted to veterinary clinics in Egypt revealed that 67.5% were infested with R. sanguineus. Two hundred and sixty adult ticks were collected. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were then tested for their effect on these ticks. The in vitro effect of different concentrations of B. bassiana on engorged females, unfed females, fed males, eggs, larvae, and nymphs was strong for all three concentrations of B. bassiana compared with controls (P<0.05) and white fungal colonies grew on the surface of the ticks. The B1 of B. bassiana (108 conidia/ ml) was the most pathogenic on adult and developmental stages of ticks. The impact of different concentrations of M. anisopliae on adult and developmental stages in comparison with controls was similar, with the growth of green hyphae around eggs and adult ticks which prevented hatching and resulted in tick death. The M2 suspension (107 conidia/ml) had the most potent effect on adult ticks and developmental stages. The efficacy of this suspension was higher than that of the B1 concentration of B. bassiana (98 and 100% respectively). Therefore, 107conidia/ml of M. anisopliae seems to be the most effective fungus to use as bio-pesticide to control different developmental stages of R. sanguineus and may be a reasonable alternative to chemical treatment.
Keywords: Bio-pesticides, Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Rhipicephalus sanguineus
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Antidiabetic Effect of Pumpkin Seeds and Gum Arabic and/or Vildagliptin on type 2 Induced Diabetes in Male Rats
Mohamed F Dowidar, Amany I Ahmed and Hanaa R Mohamed
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Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is the accompaniment of multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) including glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia where obesity is the basic element at this syndrome. T2DM is a heterogeneous metabolic syndrome resulting from genomic-environment complex interaction. Pumpkin seeds and gum Arabic are two natural products with an obvious hypoglycemic role. Vildagliptin is a selective inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-IV), and a certified therapy for T2DM. This study has been destined to assess in vivo the hypoglycemic impact of pumpkin seeds and gum Arabic in compare with vildagliptin and their combination treatments. 70 male albino rats were randomly separated into seven groups of ten each: control non-diabetic, control non-treated diabetic, diabetic treated with pumpkin seed extract (300mg/kg/day), diabetic treated with gum Arabic (500mg/kg/day), diabetic treated with vildagliptin (10mg/kg/day), diabetic treated with a combination of pumpkin seed extract and vildagliptin, and diabetic treated with a combination of gum Arabic and vildagliptin.T2DM was stimulated by feeding rats on high fat-high fructose/sucrose diet regimen (HFHF/S) for 12 weeks. Biochemical assessment has revealed that pumpkin seed extract, gum Arabic and vildagliptin can alleviate the severity of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and depress glucagon secretion.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Insulin resistance, Pumpkin seeds, Gum Arabic, Vildagliptin
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Salmonella Enteritidis in Broiler Chickens: Isolation, Antibiotic Resistance Phenotyping and Efficacy of Colistin on Control of Experimental Infection
Mohamed M. Amer, Aziza M. Amer, Eman R. Hassan and Aly M. Ghetas
Abstract
Abstract
Out of 400 examined samples 45 suspected Salmonella isolates (11.25%) were obtained 19 (9.5%) out of apparently healthy and 26 (13%) from diseased chickens. Intestinal samples had more isolates (29, 14.5%) more than liver (16, 8%). Identified S.Enteritidis from suspected salmonella was 16/45 (35.6%) with a rate of 8% out of the examined 400 samples, 6 (3.0%) out of apparently healthy and 10 (5.0%) from diseased chickens. Intestinal samples had more isolates (11, 5.5%) than liver (5, 2.5%). The Antibiotics susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis isolates revealed 100% resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, followed by oxacillin (62.5%), 56.3% for each of ampicillin, clindamycin, enrofloxacin and doxycycline, 50% for chloramphenicol, 43.8% for streptomycin, 37.5% to cephalosporins and 18.8% for colistin. Tested S. Enteritidis isolates are classified into 11 profiles and are resistant to two – nine antibiotic classes with resistant index 0.2- 0.9. Only two isolates are NDR (12.5%), most of isolates 10/16 (62.5%) are MDR and 25% are EDR to 8-9 antibiotics. Clinical signs in experimentally infected chickens appeared at 2nd dpi, mortality started at the 4th to reach 27.5% in infected nontreated and 5% in colistin treated. Signs and lesions were markedly severe in infected nontreated than treated. S. Enteritidis was re-isolated from dead infected birds. S. Enteritidis intestinal count in sacrificed infected nontreated was higher than treated. Colistin treated group showed higher FCR, EEF and CV% (1.52, 402.8 and 6.12%) than infected non-treated (1.73, 222.6 and 14.83%). It could be concluded that S. Enteritidis is prevalent in broiler chicken flocks. Most of the isolates are MDR. Experimental infection of broiler with S. Enteritidis field isolates resulted in high mortality and the addition of colistin sulphate in drinking water controlled the infection and restores the productivity of infected broiler chickens.
Keywords: Broiler, S. Enteritidis, isolation, Multidrug resistance, Experimental infection, Colistin
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Production and Quality Assessment of a New Dry Cured Turkey Product (Turkey Pastirma) Processed by Two Different Types of Packaging Techniques (Modified Traditional Coating and Vacuum Packaging)
Georgena Michel, Mai A Mohamed, Hussein MH Mohamed and M Hamdy
Abstract
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the suitability of turkey meat for production of a new dry cured product (Turkey pastirma) by two different packaging techniques (modified coating and vacuum packaging). To achieve this objective, 100 boneless and skinless chilled turkey breasts were trimmed and dry cured. After that, 50 dry cured turkey breasts were coated with modified traditional coating and the other 50 were sliced and vacuum packaged. Coated and vacuumed turkey pastirma were stored at 4 ?C till deterioration occurred and examined for sensory, physicochemical and microbiological quality parameters. The results revealed that there were non- significant differences in sensory analysis, mesophilic bacterial and mold counts between both pastirma treatments. However, the application of vacuum packaging resulted in significant decrease in protein, fat, ash contents, TBARS, TVBN, L*, b* values, lactic acid bacterial and yeast counts and significant increase in moisture content and a* value when compared with coated one. It can be concluded that, turkey meat can be a good choice raw material used for production of more tender and juicy pastirma and the application of vacuum packaging can improve all quality parameters of the product with shelf life may reach to 16 weeks at 4?.
Keywords: Turkey, Pastirma, Curing, Vacuum, Coating, Packaging
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Anthelmintic Potency and Curative Effect of Pomegranate Peels Ethanolic Extract against Haemonchus contortus Infection in Goats
NMF Hassan, D Sedky, TH Abd El-Aziz, HA Shalaby and HAA Abou-Zeina
Abstract
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of pomegranate peels ethanolic extract (PEE) against Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) infection among goats. Hemogram was also investigated. The direct effect of different concentrations of PEE at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml on adult worms and larvae in comparison with albendazole at 10µg/ml at various hours was assessed. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of PEE at 400 mg/ml was the most remarkable that caused 86% adult worm motility inhibition and 0.87 mortality index, prominent adult worms’ cuticular microscopic deformities and induced 100% larval mortality. Fifteen parasite free Baladi Egyptian goats aged 6 to 10 months old, divided into five groups (G1 to GV) were utilized. Experimental infection of the goats with H. contortus was done except GI which was used as control uninfected untreated. GII was kept as infected control. GIII, GIV and GV were treated with PEE at a dose of 3 and 6 g/kg BW, and albendazole at 10 mg/kg BW, respectively. GIV displayed the maximum fecal egg count reduction of (90.55%), significant decrease of worm burden with efficacy of (96.39%), distinct elevation in Hb and HCT values and, retaining the normal total and differential WBC with improving animals’ health condition. In conclusion, PEE had an interesting in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity against H. contortus and could be deemed as potent, safe and economic alternative anthelmintic against haemonchosis in goats.
Keywords: Haemonchus contortus, Punica granatum peels, Goats, In vitro, In vivo
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Assessment of Vector HVT-F Vaccine in one-day-old Chicks using Different Vaccination Programs and Quantification of Genome Load in Feathers and Immune Organs
Rania A Abu Zaid, Susan S El-Mahdy, Nasser Abbas Sherif, Samir A Nassif, Ahlam A Mourad, Hussein A Hussein and Ahmed A El-Sanousi
Abstract
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of rHVT-F vaccine according to quality control procedure in 1-day old broiler chicks (Identity, Sterility, Titration, Safety and, Potency ) and monitoring the comparative efficacy of several vaccination programs by prime -Boost strategy with live and inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines and detect their effect on humoral and cell mediated immunity(CMI); The protection % post challenge with vvNDV genotype VII at 20 and 28 day old chicks post vaccination and the virus shedding was detected by RT-PCR assay. Recombinant rHVT-F followed by Live vaccine induced higher humoral, CMA, protection % and also reduced virus shedding compared to other programs based on using rHVT-F followed by Inactivated or rHVT-F vaccine alone. Quantification of genome load in different immune organs [Bursa of Fabricius (B.F.), Thymus, Cecal tonsils (C.T.), Spleen and Feather follicle epithelium (F.F.E) ] samples were taken weekly intervals for real time PCR testing using a primer specific to rHVT-F (Biomune) vaccine. Results revealed that positive amplification signals with comparable ct values in B.F. and Thymus samples peaked at 1st week then declined gradually while the signals were detected only at 2nd week in the spleen. F.F.E. and C.T showed a peak at 2nd week and signals still detected till 6th week in F.F.E. The easy sampling procedure of F.F.E. makes it a sample of choice to study vaccine take. Viral load in lymphoid organs in addition to NDV precise humoral immune response is a good parameter to be considered in vaccine induced- protection. Standardization of quality control protocol for vaccine evaluation and monitoring of vaccine uptake is also important for the assessment of the efficacy of Recombinant vaccines.
Keywords: rHVT, BF, vvNDV genotype VII, F protein
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Comparative Study between the Isolated Rabbit Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus and Available Vaccine Strain
Rawhia E Hemida, Samy A Khaliel, Emad M Al-Ebshahy and Mahmoud M Abotaleb
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Abstract
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is responsible for great economic losses in rabbit industry in Egypt. Several outbreaks of the disease were recorded along subsequent years until now despite of the availability of RHDV vaccine. The present study aimed to diagnose of RHDV from 31 suspected cases in addition to genetic comparison between recently isolated RHDVs and previously isolated viruses or available vaccine strain. Sixteen isolates were confirmed to be RHDV using haemagglutination test, animal inoculation and RT-PCR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis for C-terminal VP60 gene of 7 isolates revealed the presence of newly emerged RHDV2 (Vet-Abotaleb, Vet-Alex-K15, Vet-Alex-B18, Vet-Alex-B26) in addition to classic RHDV Genotype 5 (Vet-Alex-Q2, Vet-Alex-Q7, Vet-Alex-K11). The nucleotide divergence between classic RHDV Genotype 5 to RHDV2 isolates ranged from 14.4-20.6%. Also, the newly isolated strains had nucleotide difference 11.2-21.2 % when compared to commonly vaccinal strain (RHDV-Giza 2006). Our findings indicated that there is amino acid substitution in S or A 476 E between the original RHDV isolates and vaccinal strain (Giza2006) to newly emerged RHDV isolates. The multiple alignment of deduced amino acid exhibited between the classic RHDV isolates and vaccinal strain to RHDV2 showed 13 constant amino acid differences at position I 551 V,V 553 I ,k 562 T ,E 549 D ,T 548 S,T 542 A, I 526 L,T 518 N,T 487 A ,S 476 E ,V 473 I ,V 455 I , D 441. It was concluded, the newly RHDV2 strain were isolated from suspected cases with still circulating classic RHDV in Egypt. There is high genetic diversity between isolates and vaccinal strain. So, the continuous and rapid evolution of those RHD viruses necessitates reviewing and updating for vaccine development.
Keywords: Rabbit, RHDV, Haemagglutination test, RT-PCR, Sequencing, Evolution
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Role of Tampan Tick Ornithodoros Savignyi (Acari: Argasidae) in Transmitting Trypanosoma Evansi in Laboratory Animals
Nisreen E Mahmoud, Salwa M Habeeb, Abdelrahman KA, Heba M Ashry and Hassan MR
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Abstract
Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) is a protozoan parasite recorded to be mechanically transmitted through several ways generating a significant economic impact on livestock. Different species of insects including Glossina spp.,Tabanus spp., Stomoxys spp. and Cryptotylus spp. have a role in transmission of Trypanosoma evansi. Also, Soft tick species have been suggested as vectors for Trypanosoma evansi. The present work was initiated to study the role of Ornithodoros savignyi ticks in experimental transmission of Trypanosoma evansi to the laboratory animals. The collected Trypanosoma evansi from naturally infected camels was propagated in pathogen free Swiss albino mice to be used in the experimental infection. Groups of pathogen free albino rats were inoculated with Trypanosoma evansi to be used in experimental infection of Trypanosoma free Ornithodoros savignyi ticks (laboratory reared on rabbits) by feeding on parasitaemic rats. The experimentally infected ticks were examined by light microscope, histopathological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Trypanosoma evansi. Examination of gut of infected ticks by light microscope revealed that the number of parasite/field reached 12-17 parasite after 2 hours of feeding and decreased gradually till reached one parasite / field after 24 hours then disappeared after 48 hr after feeding. Histopathological examination showed Trypanosoma evansi between the cells of salivary gland after 28-30 days from feeding of O. savignyi ticks on infected rats. Analysis of PCR amplified fragments on agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that 227 bp was detected for Trypanosoma evansi in salivary gland and whole body of Ornithodoros savignyi ticks. Feeding of the experimentally T. evansi infected ticks (O. savignyi) on free trypanosoma rats showed negative results as no parasitaemia was detected in the rats up to 30 days after feeding. The study concluded that O. savignyi ticks can take T. evansi infection that remain for up to 30 days in its body but cannot experimentally transmit it to other animals.
Keywords: Ticks, Ornithodoros savignyi, Gut, Salivary gland, Trypanosoma evansi, PCR, Histopathological study
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Effect of Seasons and Breeds on Selected Serum Parameters and Milk profile in Clinically Healthy Lactating Dairy Goats in Egypt
Mahmoud Saber, Fatma M Tayeb, Ossama M Abdou, Ayah B Abdel-Salam and Sabry A Mousa
Abstract
Abstract
This study evaluated the impact of seasons (Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring) and breeds of dairy goats (Shami, Mixed boar and Baladi) on selected serum parameters and milk profile. Forty-nine apparently healthy lactating dairy goats belonging to a private farm in El-Beharah governate, Egypt, were used in this study. Their ages ranged from 3-4 years old and their body weights ranged from 30-40 kg. According to breeds, they were classified into 17 Shami, 14 Mixed Boar and 18 Baladi, and according to seasons, they were classified into 12 Autumn, 13 Winter, 12 Spring and 12 Summer. Goats were exposed to detailed case history and clinical examination to be ensure they are free from any illness. Serum and milk samples were collected from goats at the middle of each season. calcium increased significantly in Summer with variable results among groups. Regarding overall mean, inorganic phosphorous showed significant decline in Summer, while decreased significantly in Baladi than Shami. Seasons-breeds interaction showed that inorganic phosphorous increased significantly in Shami in Autumn than Shami, Mixed boar in Summer and Baladi in Autumn. Albumin in Mixed Boar significantly increased in Summer than Autumn. Milk profile revealed that fat % increased significantly in Mixed boar in Autumn than Shami in Spring, Baladi in Autumn and Summer. Lactose % increased significantly in Baladi than Shami and Mixed Boar. Milk Protein % increased significantly in Baladi than Mixed Boar. It could be concluded that there was a considerable effect of seasons and breeds on selected serum biochemical parameters and milk panel in lactating dairy goats in Egypt. Current findings are important for goat breeder and manufacturer of goat milk products to improve breed selection and crossbreeding program.
Keywords: Seasons, Breeds, Serum, Milk profile, Dairy Goats, Egypt
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Effect of Multi-species Probiotic Supplementation on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Status and Incidence of Diarrhea in Neonatal Holstein Dairy Calves
Mandouh MI, RA Elbanna and HA Abdellatif
Abstract
Abstract
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of probiotic on growth performance and general health status of newborn dairy calves. Twenty-four Holstein dairy calves were used in a 20-day experiment, and were divided into three groups. A control group (CON) was fed on pasteurized whole milk non-supplemented with probiotic for 20 days, the second group was fed on pasteurized whole milk supplemented with 20 grams of probiotic for 5 successive days only, then fed on pasteurized whole milk non-supplemented with probiotic until the end of the experiment (PRO5) and the third group was fed on pasteurized whole milk supplemented with 20 grams of probiotic for 10 successive days, then fed on pasteurized whole milk non-supplemented with probiotic until the end of the experiment (PRO10). Body weight, body conformation, and fecal scoring were recorded on d 0, 10, and 20. Blood samples were collected on d 10 and d 20. Key antioxidant enzymes were assessed beside the liver and kidney function indicators. Data were statistically analyzed using PROC MIX procedures of SAS 9.4 software. Body weight and body weight gain were not affected by probiotic supplementation; but heart girth tended to increase in probiotic fed calves (P = 0.08). Incidence of calf diarrhea was 50% in CON and 37.5% in both PRO5 and PRO10 groups. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were reduced (P = 0.05), while globulin level tended to increase (P = 0.10) in probiotic treated calves. Our results suggest that supplementation of suckling calves with multi-species probiotic is beneficial to reduce the incidence of diarrhea.
Keywords: Neonatal calf diarrhea, Probiotic, Growth performance, Dairy calves
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Effects of Propofol Anaesthesia Pre-Medicated with Xylazine on Serum Biochemical Profiles and Sleep Pattern in Red Sokoto Goats
Abubakar Sadiq Yakubu, Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Al-mustapha Ahmad Ibrahim, Abdullahi Teleh Elsa, Keneth Idowu Onifade, Raphael OC Kene and Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
Abstract
Abstract
This study was conducted with the objective to compare the sleep pattern and biochemical changes during general anesthesia at different timing interval with the baseline information using Propofol as the agent of choice and xylazine as a pre-medicant at 4 mg kg-1 intravenously and 0.025 mg kg-1 intramuscularly respectively. The onset of anaesthesia was rapid (30.1±11.3 seconds), the anaesthetic induction, surgical plane and recovery were good. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between baseline and other timing intervals in the rectal temperature, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in pulse rate. Similarly, a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the serum calcium ion, magnesium ion, hydrogen bicarbonate ion, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, total protein and glucose levels, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the sodium ion, potassium ion, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Albumin (ALB), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), , and Urea. It was concluded that the combination of Propofol and Xylazine at 4mgkg-1 and 0.25mgkg-1 respectively can be effectively and safely used for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in Red Sokoto goats. It was also noted that recovery was smooth without any violence. The combination was also observed to have minimal effects on the clinico-biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.
Keywords: Propofol, Anaesthesia, Xylazine, Goat
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New Method for Veterinary and Sanitary Control of Defrosted Meat and Fish
Diana Orlova, Tamara Kalyuzhnaya, Anton Tokarev and Yuri Kuznetsov
Abstract
Abstract
The freezing method allows you to extend the shelf life for a long period, however, when defrosting products there is a loss of nutrients. Currently, the assessment of the thermal state of meat and fish remains a topical issue, which today is carried out using organoleptic methods, as well as a histological method for the structure of muscle tissue. These methods lose their relevance in conditions of real circulation of meat and fish products due to subjectivity, as well as complexity. To ensure the release of benign chilled products into the market and to prevent the substitution of defrosted chilled meat, a fast, effective and easily reproducible method is required. We carried out studies to assess the thermal state of 69 experimental samples of meat of animals, poultry and fish according to organoleptic indicators and also proposed a new method for the manufacture of native drugs that allows us to evaluate the structure of muscle tissue. Native meat preparations were made from thin sections of muscle tissue, crushed between the glasses of the compressorium, followed by hematoxylon-eosin staining and microscopy. it was found that the number of fibrous sections of muscle tissue in defrosted products is 11.3 times more than in samples chilled; muscle fiber breaks – 47 times. A striking identification sign that allows to differentiate the thermal state of meat and fish raw materials is the presence of thickenings at the ends of muscle fibers, which are absent in preparations of chilled material. The obtained values are statistically significant. As a result of the studies, identification criteria were established, such as a violation of the structure of muscle tissue, which is manifested by the presence of fibrous areas, tearing of muscle fibers, as well as the presence of thickenings at the ends of muscle fibers. The obtained research results allow us to use the proposed method of manufacturing and microscopy of meat and fish preparations and establish the previous freezing of products.
Keywords: Defrosted meat, Meat inspection, Muscle tissue, Sanitary control
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Pathogenesis of Newcastle Disease Virus Genotype VII in Chickens Vaccinated with LaSota and Inactivated Newcastle Disease Vaccines
Manar AA Khader, Magdy F El-Kady and Iman B Shaheed
Abstract
Abstract
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most serious viral diseases affecting poultry farms in different countries. Many outbreaks -even in vaccinated poultry flocks- were recorded in the last few years caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VII. This study was conducted to compare the pathogenesis of NDV genotype VII in non-vaccinated chickens and chickens vaccinated with NDV genotype II live (LaSota) and inactivated vaccines. One hundred 1-day-old chicks were divided into four equal groups; 25 for each. Groups A and B were kept unvaccinated. Group C was vaccinated with LaSota, and group D was vaccinated with both LaSota and inactivated NDV vaccine. Group A was kept as nonchallenged control blank group, while groups B, C and D were challenged intranasally by 0.1 ml 106 EID50 NDV genotype VII at 25-day of age. Three chickens were sacrificed from each group at 2, 5- and 10-days post challenge (dpc). Tissue specimens from trachea, lungs, bursa of fabricius, spleen and thymus were collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry. NDV genotype VII challenge virus did not induce mortality in both vaccinated groups. Both vaccination programs resulted also in less severe clinical signs and histopathological lesions comparing to non-vaccinated challenged birds. Tracheal lesion score was significantly low in group D at 10 dpc while no significant difference was recorded between groups C and D in lungs. All lymphoid organs showed significantly less severe pathological alterations and depletion in groups C and D comparing to group B. Our results indicated that mis-matched genotype NDV vaccines could alleviate the pathological effect of the NDV challenge virus but do not provide complete protection of the infected host organs.
Keywords: ND Vaccines, NDV Genotype VII, HI, Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry lymphoid organs, Trachea and lung
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Performance of Different Solid and Liquid Culture Media for the Improvement of Tuberculin Production
Shereen, AM, Marwah, M Mohamed, Abear S Almagraby and Abdel Rahman M
Abstract
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important zoonotic bacterial diseases. A huge economic loss which could be direct or indirect are associated with the disease. Currently, the primary methods used for detection of TB in humans and cattle include the measurement of a delayed type hypersensitivity to purified protein derivative (PPD). So, the need for preparation of purified PPD with adequate properties and increasing the final PPD yield with decreasing the time of tuberculin production has stimulated the interest in the development of its preparation. Our study was performed to compare between the standard and modified media for improving tuberculin production. Middle brook 7H10 agar medium was used as a modified basic medium for mycobacterial growth, followed by cultivation of mycobacteria on Middle brook 7H9 broth medium. For the production, strains were inoculated onto the culture medium (Dorest Henly synthetic medium). Other steps for tuberculin production was done according to standard Weighbridge protocol. The results demonstrated that the using of both Middle brook 7H10 agar and Middle brook 7H9 broth instead of Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) and glycerin broth media which used in currently produced tuberculin, have better physical and chemical properties. In addition, reducing the time required for production by accelerating the time of microbial growth. Also, it was found that the tuberculin produced using modified media was slightly more potent or the same as currently tuberculin produced. So, both Middle brook 7H10 agar and Middle brook 7H9 broth media are recommended for production of tuberculin saving time and increasing potency of the product but more investigation was recommended for estimation types of protein present in both locally prepared and modified tuberculin.
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; PPD; tuberculin; Middle brook 7H9; LJ
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Proximate Chemical Analysis, Fatty Acid Profile and Microstructural Characteristics of Dromedary Camel Fats (Hump, Renal and Mesentery)
Mohamed M Mashaly, Marwa RS Abdallah, Mohamed MT Emara and Mohamed K Elmossalami
Abstract
Abstract
The quality, safety, and suitability of animal fat for processing of a specific meat product is a critical issue. Increasing the human awareness about the health aspects associated with increased intake of animal fat, makes camel fat a suitable raw material for meat processing due to its excellent nutritional contribution. Therefore, the target of this study is examination of the sensory, physicochemical, fat oxidation, fatty acid profile, and other quality parameters of camel fat to evaluate the feasibility for processing of different meat products. To achieve this goal, 30 fat samples each from the hump, renal, and mesentery of Arabian male camels were investigated. The results showed that both the renal and mesenteric fat had honey color and medium-soft texture, while the hump had greyish-white color and hard texture. The sensory panel scores were significantly different between the hump and other fats. Hump fat had significantly (P<0.05) higher moisture, protein, and collagen content, while higher fat content was recorded in mesenteric fat. The fatty acid analysis showed that hump had high SFA and very low PUFA in comparison with both renal and mesenteric fat. Camel fat had high oxidation stability, and the mean values were very low in comparison with the levels of quality and acceptability. The ultrastructural analysis showed that hump fat had high elastin fibers which increase its hardness. The results indicated that both renal and mesenteric fat were more suitable for the production of various meat products than the hump.
Keywords: Camel fat, Chemical analysis, Lipid oxidation criteria, Hump, Ultrastructure
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Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Broiler Meat in Morocco
Mounaim Halim El Jalil, Mohamed Khamar, Soukaina Maaninou, Maha Dahha, Abdellah Zinedine and Najia Ameur
Abstract
Abstract
The spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterobacteria worldwide is a major public health threat. Resistant to at least three classes of antibiotics, MDR enterobacteria cause infections that escape first-line treatment. Escherichia coli is the most frequently isolated bacterium in poultry industry. We followed the pattern and trend of antibiotic resistance of strains of E. coli isolated from poultry meat destined for human consumption sold in Morocco during the period 2016-2018, and thus detected strains that would be multidrug-resistant (MDR). In this study we investigated the resistance of 240 strains of E. coli isolated from poultry meat to 13 antibiotics by using the agar diffusion susceptibility test method. Results showed high resistance to ciprofloxacins (87.5%), tetracycline (75%), trimethomprime-sulfametoxazole (3rd generation) (70.8%), nalidixic acid (62.5%) and cefotaxime (50%), ampicillin (45.8%); and we detected low resistance to gentamicin (29.1%). In total, 50 isolated strains of E. coli (20.8%) have shown MDR. These results are useful to practicing veterinarians trying to avoid therapeutic failures and constitute an important database for pharmacovigilance and epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in the country.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, Poultry meat, Antibiotic, Multidrug-resistant
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Ultrasonographic Characteristics of the Stifle Joint in Clinically Normal Donkeys (Equus asinus)
Marwa H Hassan and Ahmed I Abdelgalil
Abstract
Abstract
Stifle ultrasonography is a widely accepted diagnostic tool that has been used for diagnosing articular and peri-articular stifle injuries in horses. Limited information is available regarding the ultrasonographic appearance of the stifle joint in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic characteristics of the stifle joint in clinically normal donkeys. A descriptive study was done on 15 clinically normal donkeys (30 joints). Ultrasonographic examination was done in a systematic manner including both supra- and infra-patellar regions. The patella, patellar ligaments and tibial tuberosity were taken as palpable anatomical landmarks for localization of different stifle structures. A detailed description of the ultrasonographic appearance of the quadriceps muscle, supra-patellar pouch and femoropatellar joint was done through the supra-patellar approach. In infra-patellar approach, thepatellar ligaments, medial and lateral femorotibial joints, collateral ligaments, menisci, origin of peroneous tertius and popliteal tendon were described. Standardized, repeatable and reliable images were achieved from both approaches. Ultrasonography provided a clinically useful tool for diagnosing donkeys with stifle joint disease.
Keywords: Donkey, Equine, Joint, Stifle, Ultrasound
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MRI Features of Fetlock and Pastern Regions in 30 Chronically, Un-Treated Lame Draft Horses Confirmed by Postmortem Examination
Yahya M Elemmawy, Ashraf M Abu-Seida, Nasser A Senna and Ahmed F Yousef
Abstract
Abstract
Lameness from fetlock and pastern regions is a big challenge to most equine practitioners and produces a detrimental effect on horses’ activity and on owners’ finances. Nuclear scintigraphy, radiography and ultrasonography are not conclusive when assessing of fetlock and pastern lameness. This study describes the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in 30 draft horses with chronic, un-treated lameness attributable to fetlock and pastern regions as well as confirms these features by postmortem examination. Thirty-three cadaver limbs were collected after euthanasia, imaged by MR and lastly examined grossly. Seventeen lesions were recorded and described using MRI. MRI revealed injuries of both soft and osseous tissues in 24 horses (80%), soft tissue injuries in five horses (16.7%) and bone and cartilage injuries in one horse (3.3%). All horses had multiple MRI abnormalities. The most frequent MR lesions were digital tenosynovitis (n=13), straight sesamoidean desmitis (n=10), osteosclerosis in the distal part of third metacarpal bone (MCIII) or first phalanx (PI, n=10), adhesions between straight sesamoidean ligament (SSL) and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT, n=9), oblique sesamoidean desmitis (n=7), cartilage erosions of fetlock or pastern joints (n=7), adhesions between proximal digital annular ligament and DDFT (n=6), DDFTendinitis at pre-navicular part (n=6), proximal digital annular desmitis (n=5), subchondral bone cyst of PI (n=3), and cyst like lesions in PI and PII (n=2). In conclusion, MRI played a pivotal role in comprehensive evaluation of fetlock and pastern regions and it is highly recommended for examination of all structures of fetlock and/or pastern regions in chronically lame draft horses.
Keywords: Desmitis, Diagnostic imaging, Digital tenosynovitis, Metacarpo-phalangeal joint, Osteosclerosis, Tendinitis
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Normal Vascular and Nerve Distribution of the Pes Region in Dogs: An Anatomical and Diagnostic Imaging
Maher MA and Ibrahim A Emam
Abstract
Abstract
To investigate the normal anatomical distribution of the arterial blood supply, venous drainage and innervation on both the dorsal and plantar aspects of pes region including the level of tarsal joint due to its clinical importance with a little data available. Methods: Ten hind paws of five adult apparently healthy domestic dogs of both sexes; six paws injected, through blood vessels with colored latex neoprene for anatomical dissection and the other four paws injected a contrast mixture of red lead oxide and turpentine oil for the radiographic investigation of blood vessels. In addition to five live dogs used to apply the distal limb local anesthesia with the aid of Needle-Guided Ultrasonography. Results: This investigation revealed that the dorsal and plantar aspects of dog pes region supplied by superficial and deep sets of arteries, veins and nerves. The three dorsal metatarsal arteries originated from the arcuate artery. The medial tarsal vein forming characteristic venous arcades. The 3rd plantar metatarsal artery divided into two axial arteries while the 2nd and 4th continued axially without division. The plantar common digital and metatarsal nerves II, III, IV communicated to give origins of the axial and abaxial plantar proper digital nerves except the abaxials of the 2nd and 5th digits which supplied by a branch from medial plantar nerve and lateral plantar nerve respectively. Conclusion: There were little differences between dogs and other carnivores in vascularization of hind paw with the recommendation of using Needle-Guided Ultrasonography in the distal limb local anesthesia to avoid vascular puncture or damage.
Keywords: Anatomy, Dog, Diagnostic Imaging, Nerve, Pes, Vascular
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Effect of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Extracts on the Physicochemical Characteristics, Microbiological quality and Biogenic Amines of Semi-dry Fermented Sausage
Gehad A Ezzat, Mai A Mohamed, Mohamed MT Emara and Nabil A Yassien
Abstract
Abstract
The main objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and seeds aqueous extracts on the physicochemical properties, microbiological quality and biogenic amines content of semi-dry fermented sausage during ripening process and storage at 4ºC for 3 months. Semi-dry fermented sausages were formulated by using M. oleifera leaves and seeds aqueous extracts at a rate of 1.5% in comparison to control. Incorporation of M. oleifera leaves aqueous extracts during the formulation of fermented sausage resulted in a significant (P<0.05) decrease in pH, lipid oxidation and total volatile nitrogen content while significant (P<0.05) increase in the lactic acid bacteria when compared with those formulated with seeds and control groups. However, the yeast, mold and biogenic amines content of sausages formulated with M. oleifera seeds aqueous extract were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those formulated with leaves and the control. From this study, we can conclude that M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract exhibited potent antioxidant activity while that of seeds exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. Therefore, both M. oleifera extracts can be used as natural additives to improve the quality and safety of semi-dry fermented sausage.
Keywords: Moringa, Extract, Sausage, Ripening, Amines, Quality
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Impact of Subclinical Mastitis on Milk Quality in Different Seasons
NH Youssif, NM Hafiz, MA Halawa, HM Aziz and MF Saad
Abstract
Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of subclinical mastitis on chemical constituents of cow’s milk samples in different seasons; which collected from 444 apparently healthy Holstein Frisian dairy animals during the period of December 2016 to November 2017 in a private dairy farm located in Fayoum district, Egypt. The results of chemical analysis of the milk samples along the four seasons of the year which done by the Lactoscan SLC milk analyzer device revealed that; the values of mean for (Fat%, Protein%, SNF%, Lactose%, Salt% and SCC/ml) in winter were (2.22±0.06, 2.90±0.08, 7.79±0.22, 4.14±0.12, 0.72±0.02 and 6.9×105±1.9×104 respectively).While the mean values of the same parameters in spring were (2.72±0.23, 2.58± 0.22, 6.93±0.58, 3.67±0.31, 0.64±0.05 and 9.2×105±7.7×104 respectively). In the summer, the mean values of (Fat%, Protein%, SNF%, Lactose%, Salt% and SCC/ml) were (2.35± 0.24, 2.80 ±0.28, 7.55±0.76, 4.00±0.40, 0.70±0.07 and 7.7×105±7.7×104 respectively), while the mean values in the autumn were (2.89±0.09, 2.69±0.08, 7.25±0.21, 3.84±0.11, 0.67±0.02 and 11.0×105±3.2×104 respectively). The analysis of findings specified that; there is a significant difference (P<0.05) in fat % and SCC between winter and autumn, however there is a significant difference (P<0.05) between (winter and autumn) and (winter and spring) in the parameters of protein, SNF and lactose content. The results reveal that there is a strong negative correlation between SCC and fat %; however there is a strong positive correlation between SCC and salt %.
Keywords: Chemical constituents, Subclinical mastitis, Seasons
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Morphological Studies and Arterial Supply of the Pharynx in the Goat (Capra hiracus)
Wally YR, S Haymaa Hussein, AF EL-karmouty and Mariam F Farid
Abstract
Abstract
The present work was carried out to give complete information about the anatomy and histology of pharynx in the goat which may be helpful for further studies to both under graduate and post graduate studies. The morphological studies of the pharynx entailed the collection of twenty-four heads together with first two cervical vertebrae from apparently healthy adult goats of both sexes from the Giza governorate. The results showed that the pharynx in goat was an irregular funnel shaped structure. It extended from the caudal end of the horizontal lamina of the palatine bone, extended caudoventrally up to the level of the caudal border of the wing of atlas. The pharyngeal fornix was smooth and concave and divided by the septum pharyngis into two deep narrow cavities. The pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube was crescent shaped slit situated at the caudodorsal part of the lateral wall of the nasopharynx. It was covered medially by a thin mucosal fold (salpingo-pharyngeal fold, contained hyaline cartilage in lamina propria). Both the Tonsilla pharyngea and the Tonsilla tubaria observed only microscopically. The oropharynx was short, wide and dilatable. The palatine tonsil was located on the caudal third of the lateral wall of the oropharynx. The pharynx of the goat received its arterial blood supply via the ascending pharyngeal, ascending palatine arteries, and the pharyngeal branches of the cranial thyroid, cranial laryngeal and Rr. musculares of the lingual artery. The soft palate is vascularized through lesser palatine artery, in addition to the branches of the pterygoid artery of the maxillary artery. The results obtained were discussed with the available literature in different animals.
Keywords: Goat; Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Palatine tonsil, Tubal tonsil, Blood supply
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Impact of Transfaunation of Rumen Ciliate Cultures on Physical Examination, Selected Serum Parameters and Milk Profile in Defaunated Lactating Dairy Goats
Mahmoud Saber, Fatma M Tayeb, Ossama M Abdou, Ayah B Abdel-Salam and Sabry A Mousa
Abstract
Abstract
Rumen ciliates still have mysterious secrets and influences in ruminants. This study investigated the effect of transfaunation of pure and mixed cultures of rumen ciliates on physical clinical examination, selected serum parameters and milk profile in defaunated lactating dairy goats. A number of 8 Baladi native breed goats were randomly classified into two groups each one containing 4 goats. Pure culture group was transfaunated with 6 ml of pure culture of Holotricha spp., while mixed culture group was transfaunated with 6 ml of mixed culture of 81.85% Holotricha and 18.15% Ophryoscolex spp. once weekly for three consecutive weeks, after defaunation of both groups using 30 ml of 8% SLS for two consecutive days. Serum and milk samples were collected weekly for three successive weeks to study effect of type of ciliate culture, duration of transfaunation and their interaction. Results revealed that transfaunation of pure and mixed cultures of rumen ciliates had no effect on physical examination with minimal non-significant improvement of calcium, inorganic phosphorous, total protein and globulin in serum of defaunated goats. Transfaunation of pure or mixed cultures of rumen ciliates within three weeks could not improve significantly decreased milk fat % of defaunated goats without any effect on other measured milk profile parameters. It is concluded that further investigations on transfaunation without prior defaunation should be performed using different pure and mixed cultures of rumen ciliates for therapeutic and productive purposes.
Keywords: Transfaunation, Defaunation, Rumen ciliate culture, Physical examination, Milk, Serum, Dairy goats
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Ginger Extract and Ginger Nanoparticles; Characterization and Applications
Alaa F Bakr, Sherein S Abdelgayed, Osama S EL-Tawil and Adel M Bakeer
Abstract
Abstract
Herbal plants have been used by a majority of people due to its pharmacological properties. Recently, herbal medicinal is got more attention by scientist due to appearance of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Ginger is a one of medicinal plant which used around the world as flavoring agent in food in both fresh and dried forms. Also, ginger has multiple therapeutic action such as anti-tumorigenic, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant activities which attributed to its active polyphenol compounds as gingerols and shogaols. Recently, ginger nanoparticles have been isolated from ginger extract and involved in drug delivery system without induction of side effects. This review paper briefly summarizes the pharmacological characterization and different therapeutic applications of ginger in both extract and nano-size form.
Keywords: Ginger, ginger nanoparticles, gingerols, shogaols, herbal medicine.
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Study on Dispersal of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Retail Beef and Chicken Meat
Safaa S Abd El-fatah, Aalaa S Saad, Abd El Salam A Abd El Salam and Ahmed S Mohamed
Abstract
Abstract
This study was performed to detect the dispersal of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica as well as reveal its antibiogram and spread of ESBL genes in the isolates from retail beef and chicken meat. Eighty-two beef and chicken meat samples have been picked up from butcher’s stores and restaurants in Cairo and Giza, Egypt. Escherichia coli were isolated from 15% of examined beef and chicken meat samples, which was 52%, 41%, 12% and 1% from raw beef, raw chicken beef ready for consumption and chicken ready for consumption samples respectively. However, Salmonella enterica was detected from 1% from chicken meat samples ready for consumption only which constitute 5% from different meat samples. Escherichia coli isolates were insensitive to Clindamycin and Rifampin 100% each and showed high resistance to Ciprofloxacin, 78.9%. While Salmonella enterica isolate was unsusceptible to Ceftazidime, Cefepime, Cefotaxime, Clindamycin, Ciprofloxacin and Rifampin. All Escherichia coli isolates as well as, salmonella enterica isolate were phenotypically ESBL positive. All of Escherichia coli isolates contained blaTEM gene while blaSHV gene was detected in 85% and 60% in members of Escherichia coli recovered from raw and ready for consumption meat respectively. blaTEM and blaSHV both genes were detected in Salmonella enterica isolate. While BlaCTX gene did not detect in any of the Escherichia coli and salmonella enterica isolates.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Antimicrobial resistance, Retail meat
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