In Press Articles

Surgical Management of Bicornual Uterine Prolapse in a Siamese Cat: A Case Report
WK Kimani and SW Mbugua
Abstract
Abstract
Uterine prolapse is a rare condition in cats that can be managed by performing either an external hysterectomy or manual reduction followed by ovariohysterectomy. This article describes surgical management of bilateral uterine prolapse in a queen. A one year old female, pluriparous Siamese cat (Felis catus) with no past history of dystocia and weighing 2.8 kg was presented to Andys Veterinary hospital, Nairobi, Kenya with a protruding mass through the vulval. The queen had a history of recent queening and had delivered three kittens a week earlier. The owner noticed the protruding mass about 24 hours after the delivery of the last neonate. A few days later, the cat was not suckling the kittens well and was in appetent. As a sequel to this, two kittens died. After a week, the protruding mass had a pungent smell and the client presented the cat to the hospital. Complete bilateral uterine prolapse was diagnosed after a visual examination and palpation of the mass. The uterus was swollen, had necrotic areas and debris. Accordingly, a two staged ovariohysterectomy was opted for to manage the case. An internal ovariectomy was first done via a ventral midline celiotomy followed by an external hysterectomy. Post-operative management included pain medication and antibiotic therapy and the patient recovered well and was discharged after 2 days. The skin sutures were removed 10 days postoperatively. The cat recovered uneventfully with no further complications reported by the owner. In conclusion, this article shows that when the prolapsed uterus is swollen, damaged and necrotic, a two staged ovariohysterectomy should be the method of treatment and the outcome is good despite the duration of the condition.
Keywords: Felis catus, Bilateral uterine prolapse
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Flea Species Isolated from the Human and Animals: Prevalence and Ultrastructural Studies
Marwa M Attia Nagla MK Salaeh and Sohila M El-Gameel
Abstract
Abstract
Fleas are one of the insects that belong to the order Siphonaptera. They are a wingless, compressed laterally, and non-host specific insect parasitizing a wide range of hosts, so they able to transmit diseases from animals to human. This study aimed to identify the fleas in and around human and animals with their prevalence and ultrastructure study. Flea samples were collected from four governorates (Cairo; Giza; Fayoum and South Sinai); Egypt during the period from January 2017 to May 2018.One-hundred and twenty fleas were collected from five animals (donkeys, sheep, goats, dogs, and cats) surrounding humans. All the collected fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis (C. f. felis). All the animals were infested with C. f. felis with flea’s allergic dermatitis recorded in dogs, human, and donkeys, while goats and sheep showed anemic mucous membrane. The highest infestation was recorded in spring and summer. The morphological characters of 50 specimens were recorded and measured using the stereoscopic and light microscope as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ultramorphological characters of C.f. felis head, thorax, and abdomen with the genital organs of male and female were fully described. The antennae have three segments with the third one had several adhesive circular disks and numerous sensory hairs in antennal grooves. The maxillary palps were well developed with four segments which supported with sensory small hairs. The first genal comb is half of the second one or nearly equal to its length. These results about identification and prevalence studies were used to update the knowledge about the flea species present in investigated localities in Egypt; to detect the appropriate control measures which could be applied in flea’s infestation.
Keywords: Ctenocephalides felis felis, Flea allergic dermatitis, Siphonaptera, Prevalence, Ultrastructure
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Effect of Marjoram Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Immunological Indices in Broilers
Sherif Mohamed Shawky, Sahar Hassan Orabi and Ahmed Dawod
Abstract
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the effects of Marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immunity in broilers. A sixty of one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks were randomly divided into 2 groups; Chicks of group 1 were fed on basal diet considered as a control group, chicks of group 2 were fed on an experimental ration containing 2% marjoram. The results showed that the Marjoram significantly increase (P<0.05) some growth factors as body weight after 3rd, 4th and 5th weeks, weight gain at 3rd and 5th weeks, also significantly improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 3rd, 5th weeks in comparison with the control group. Also, Marjoram supplementation at the level of 2% caused a significant elevation (P?0.05) in gamma globulin, thus marjoram could be considered as an immunity enhancer for broilers. In conclusion, the present study proved that supplementation of the ration with Marjoram could improve growth performance and immunological state in broilers.
Keywords: Marjoram, Growth performance, Immunity, Broiler
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Bio-Pesticide Control of the Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) in Egypt by using Two Entomopathogenic Fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae)
Mai Mohammed Abuowarda, Mounir Abdel Haleem, Magdy Elsayed, Heba Farag and Sara Magdy
Abstract
Abstract
The current study examined the potential use of entomopathogenic fungi to control infestation of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Examination of 514 dogs admitted to veterinary clinics in Egypt revealed that 67.5% were infested with R. sanguineus. Two hundred and sixty adult ticks were collected. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were then tested for their effect on these ticks. The in vitro effect of different concentrations of B. bassiana on engorged females, unfed females, fed males, eggs, larvae, and nymphs was strong for all three concentrations of B. bassiana compared with controls (P<0.05) and white fungal colonies grew on the surface of the ticks. The B1 of B. bassiana (108 conidia/ ml) was the most pathogenic on adult and developmental stages of ticks. The impact of different concentrations of M. anisopliae on adult and developmental stages in comparison with controls was similar, with the growth of green hyphae around eggs and adult ticks which prevented hatching and resulted in tick death. The M2 suspension (107 conidia/ml) had the most potent effect on adult ticks and developmental stages. The efficacy of this suspension was higher than that of the B1 concentration of B. bassiana (98 and 100% respectively). Therefore, 107conidia/ml of M. anisopliae seems to be the most effective fungus to use as bio-pesticide to control different developmental stages of R. sanguineus and may be a reasonable alternative to chemical treatment.
Keywords: Bio-pesticides, Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Rhipicephalus sanguineus
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Antidiabetic Effect of Pumpkin Seeds and Gum Arabic and/or Vildagliptin on type 2 Induced Diabetes in Male Rats
Mohamed F Dowidar, Amany I Ahmed and Hanaa R Mohamed
Abstract
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is the accompaniment of multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) including glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia where obesity is the basic element at this syndrome. T2DM is a heterogeneous metabolic syndrome resulting from genomic-environment complex interaction. Pumpkin seeds and gum Arabic are two natural products with an obvious hypoglycemic role. Vildagliptin is a selective inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-IV), and a certified therapy for T2DM. This study has been destined to assess in vivo the hypoglycemic impact of pumpkin seeds and gum Arabic in compare with vildagliptin and their combination treatments. 70 male albino rats were randomly separated into seven groups of ten each: control non-diabetic, control non-treated diabetic, diabetic treated with pumpkin seed extract (300mg/kg/day), diabetic treated with gum Arabic (500mg/kg/day), diabetic treated with vildagliptin (10mg/kg/day), diabetic treated with a combination of pumpkin seed extract and vildagliptin, and diabetic treated with a combination of gum Arabic and vildagliptin.T2DM was stimulated by feeding rats on high fat-high fructose/sucrose diet regimen (HFHF/S) for 12 weeks. Biochemical assessment has revealed that pumpkin seed extract, gum Arabic and vildagliptin can alleviate the severity of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and depress glucagon secretion.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Insulin resistance, Pumpkin seeds, Gum Arabic, Vildagliptin
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Salmonella Enteritidis in Broiler Chickens: Isolation, Antibiotic Resistance Phenotyping and Efficacy of Colistin on Control of Experimental Infection
Mohamed M. Amer, Aziza M. Amer, Eman R. Hassan and Aly M. Ghetas
Abstract
Abstract
Out of 400 examined samples 45 suspected Salmonella isolates (11.25%) were obtained 19 (9.5%) out of apparently healthy and 26 (13%) from diseased chickens. Intestinal samples had more isolates (29, 14.5%) more than liver (16, 8%). Identified S.Enteritidis from suspected salmonella was 16/45 (35.6%) with a rate of 8% out of the examined 400 samples, 6 (3.0%) out of apparently healthy and 10 (5.0%) from diseased chickens. Intestinal samples had more isolates (11, 5.5%) than liver (5, 2.5%). The Antibiotics susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis isolates revealed 100% resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, followed by oxacillin (62.5%), 56.3% for each of ampicillin, clindamycin, enrofloxacin and doxycycline, 50% for chloramphenicol, 43.8% for streptomycin, 37.5% to cephalosporins and 18.8% for colistin. Tested S. Enteritidis isolates are classified into 11 profiles and are resistant to two – nine antibiotic classes with resistant index 0.2- 0.9. Only two isolates are NDR (12.5%), most of isolates 10/16 (62.5%) are MDR and 25% are EDR to 8-9 antibiotics. Clinical signs in experimentally infected chickens appeared at 2nd dpi, mortality started at the 4th to reach 27.5% in infected nontreated and 5% in colistin treated. Signs and lesions were markedly severe in infected nontreated than treated. S. Enteritidis was re-isolated from dead infected birds. S. Enteritidis intestinal count in sacrificed infected nontreated was higher than treated. Colistin treated group showed higher FCR, EEF and CV% (1.52, 402.8 and 6.12%) than infected non-treated (1.73, 222.6 and 14.83%). It could be concluded that S. Enteritidis is prevalent in broiler chicken flocks. Most of the isolates are MDR. Experimental infection of broiler with S. Enteritidis field isolates resulted in high mortality and the addition of colistin sulphate in drinking water controlled the infection and restores the productivity of infected broiler chickens.
Keywords: Broiler, S. Enteritidis, isolation, Multidrug resistance, Experimental infection, Colistin
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Production and Quality Assessment of a New Dry Cured Turkey Product (Turkey Pastirma) Processed by Two Different Types of Packaging Techniques (Modified Traditional Coating and Vacuum Packaging)
Georgena Michel, Mai A Mohamed, Hussein MH Mohamed and M Hamdy
Abstract
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the suitability of turkey meat for production of a new dry cured product (Turkey pastirma) by two different packaging techniques (modified coating and vacuum packaging). To achieve this objective, 100 boneless and skinless chilled turkey breasts were trimmed and dry cured. After that, 50 dry cured turkey breasts were coated with modified traditional coating and the other 50 were sliced and vacuum packaged. Coated and vacuumed turkey pastirma were stored at 4 ?C till deterioration occurred and examined for sensory, physicochemical and microbiological quality parameters. The results revealed that there were non- significant differences in sensory analysis, mesophilic bacterial and mold counts between both pastirma treatments. However, the application of vacuum packaging resulted in significant decrease in protein, fat, ash contents, TBARS, TVBN, L*, b* values, lactic acid bacterial and yeast counts and significant increase in moisture content and a* value when compared with coated one. It can be concluded that, turkey meat can be a good choice raw material used for production of more tender and juicy pastirma and the application of vacuum packaging can improve all quality parameters of the product with shelf life may reach to 16 weeks at 4?.
Keywords: Turkey, Pastirma, Curing, Vacuum, Coating, Packaging
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Anthelmintic Potency and Curative Effect of Pomegranate Peels Ethanolic Extract against Haemonchus contortus Infection in Goats
NMF Hassan, D Sedky, TH Abd El-Aziz, HA Shalaby and HAA Abou-Zeina
Abstract
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of pomegranate peels ethanolic extract (PEE) against Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) infection among goats. Hemogram was also investigated. The direct effect of different concentrations of PEE at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml on adult worms and larvae in comparison with albendazole at 10µg/ml at various hours was assessed. The in vitro anthelmintic effect of PEE at 400 mg/ml was the most remarkable that caused 86% adult worm motility inhibition and 0.87 mortality index, prominent adult worms’ cuticular microscopic deformities and induced 100% larval mortality. Fifteen parasite free Baladi Egyptian goats aged 6 to 10 months old, divided into five groups (G1 to GV) were utilized. Experimental infection of the goats with H. contortus was done except GI which was used as control uninfected untreated. GII was kept as infected control. GIII, GIV and GV were treated with PEE at a dose of 3 and 6 g/kg BW, and albendazole at 10 mg/kg BW, respectively. GIV displayed the maximum fecal egg count reduction of (90.55%), significant decrease of worm burden with efficacy of (96.39%), distinct elevation in Hb and HCT values and, retaining the normal total and differential WBC with improving animals’ health condition. In conclusion, PEE had an interesting in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity against H. contortus and could be deemed as potent, safe and economic alternative anthelmintic against haemonchosis in goats.
Keywords: Haemonchus contortus, Punica granatum peels, Goats, In vitro, In vivo
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Assessment of Vector HVT-F Vaccine in one-day-old Chicks using Different Vaccination Programs and Quantification of Genome Load in Feathers and Immune Organs
Rania A Abu Zaid, Susan S El-Mahdy, Nasser Abbas Sherif, Samir A Nassif, Ahlam A Mourad, Hussein A Hussein and Ahmed A El-Sanousi
Abstract
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of rHVT-F vaccine according to quality control procedure in 1-day old broiler chicks (Identity, Sterility, Titration, Safety and, Potency ) and monitoring the comparative efficacy of several vaccination programs by prime -Boost strategy with live and inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines and detect their effect on humoral and cell mediated immunity(CMI); The protection % post challenge with vvNDV genotype VII at 20 and 28 day old chicks post vaccination and the virus shedding was detected by RT-PCR assay. Recombinant rHVT-F followed by Live vaccine induced higher humoral, CMA, protection % and also reduced virus shedding compared to other programs based on using rHVT-F followed by Inactivated or rHVT-F vaccine alone. Quantification of genome load in different immune organs [Bursa of Fabricius (B.F.), Thymus, Cecal tonsils (C.T.), Spleen and Feather follicle epithelium (F.F.E) ] samples were taken weekly intervals for real time PCR testing using a primer specific to rHVT-F (Biomune) vaccine. Results revealed that positive amplification signals with comparable ct values in B.F. and Thymus samples peaked at 1st week then declined gradually while the signals were detected only at 2nd week in the spleen. F.F.E. and C.T showed a peak at 2nd week and signals still detected till 6th week in F.F.E. The easy sampling procedure of F.F.E. makes it a sample of choice to study vaccine take. Viral load in lymphoid organs in addition to NDV precise humoral immune response is a good parameter to be considered in vaccine induced- protection. Standardization of quality control protocol for vaccine evaluation and monitoring of vaccine uptake is also important for the assessment of the efficacy of Recombinant vaccines.
Keywords: rHVT, BF, vvNDV genotype VII, F protein
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Comparative Study between the Isolated Rabbit Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus and Available Vaccine Strain
Rawhia E Hemida, Samy A Khaliel, Emad M Al-Ebshahy and Mahmoud M Abotaleb
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Abstract
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is responsible for great economic losses in rabbit industry in Egypt. Several outbreaks of the disease were recorded along subsequent years until now despite of the availability of RHDV vaccine. The present study aimed to diagnose of RHDV from 31 suspected cases in addition to genetic comparison between recently isolated RHDVs and previously isolated viruses or available vaccine strain. Sixteen isolates were confirmed to be RHDV using haemagglutination test, animal inoculation and RT-PCR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis for C-terminal VP60 gene of 7 isolates revealed the presence of newly emerged RHDV2 (Vet-Abotaleb, Vet-Alex-K15, Vet-Alex-B18, Vet-Alex-B26) in addition to classic RHDV Genotype 5 (Vet-Alex-Q2, Vet-Alex-Q7, Vet-Alex-K11). The nucleotide divergence between classic RHDV Genotype 5 to RHDV2 isolates ranged from 14.4-20.6%. Also, the newly isolated strains had nucleotide difference 11.2-21.2 % when compared to commonly vaccinal strain (RHDV-Giza 2006). Our findings indicated that there is amino acid substitution in S or A 476 E between the original RHDV isolates and vaccinal strain (Giza2006) to newly emerged RHDV isolates. The multiple alignment of deduced amino acid exhibited between the classic RHDV isolates and vaccinal strain to RHDV2 showed 13 constant amino acid differences at position I 551 V,V 553 I ,k 562 T ,E 549 D ,T 548 S,T 542 A, I 526 L,T 518 N,T 487 A ,S 476 E ,V 473 I ,V 455 I , D 441. It was concluded, the newly RHDV2 strain were isolated from suspected cases with still circulating classic RHDV in Egypt. There is high genetic diversity between isolates and vaccinal strain. So, the continuous and rapid evolution of those RHD viruses necessitates reviewing and updating for vaccine development.
Keywords: Rabbit, RHDV, Haemagglutination test, RT-PCR, Sequencing, Evolution
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Role of Tampan Tick Ornithodoros Savignyi (Acari: Argasidae) in Transmitting Trypanosoma Evansi in Laboratory Animals
Nisreen E Mahmoud, Salwa M Habeeb, Abdelrahman KA, Heba M Ashry and Hassan MR
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Abstract
Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) is a protozoan parasite recorded to be mechanically transmitted through several ways generating a significant economic impact on livestock. Different species of insects including Glossina spp.,Tabanus spp., Stomoxys spp. and Cryptotylus spp. have a role in transmission of Trypanosoma evansi. Also, Soft tick species have been suggested as vectors for Trypanosoma evansi. The present work was initiated to study the role of Ornithodoros savignyi ticks in experimental transmission of Trypanosoma evansi to the laboratory animals. The collected Trypanosoma evansi from naturally infected camels was propagated in pathogen free Swiss albino mice to be used in the experimental infection. Groups of pathogen free albino rats were inoculated with Trypanosoma evansi to be used in experimental infection of Trypanosoma free Ornithodoros savignyi ticks (laboratory reared on rabbits) by feeding on parasitaemic rats. The experimentally infected ticks were examined by light microscope, histopathological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Trypanosoma evansi. Examination of gut of infected ticks by light microscope revealed that the number of parasite/field reached 12-17 parasite after 2 hours of feeding and decreased gradually till reached one parasite / field after 24 hours then disappeared after 48 hr after feeding. Histopathological examination showed Trypanosoma evansi between the cells of salivary gland after 28-30 days from feeding of O. savignyi ticks on infected rats. Analysis of PCR amplified fragments on agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that 227 bp was detected for Trypanosoma evansi in salivary gland and whole body of Ornithodoros savignyi ticks. Feeding of the experimentally T. evansi infected ticks (O. savignyi) on free trypanosoma rats showed negative results as no parasitaemia was detected in the rats up to 30 days after feeding. The study concluded that O. savignyi ticks can take T. evansi infection that remain for up to 30 days in its body but cannot experimentally transmit it to other animals.
Keywords: Ticks, Ornithodoros savignyi, Gut, Salivary gland, Trypanosoma evansi, PCR, Histopathological study
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Effect of Seasons and Breeds on Selected Serum Parameters and Milk profile in Clinically Healthy Lactating Dairy Goats in Egypt
Mahmoud Saber, Fatma M Tayeb, Ossama M Abdou, Ayah B Abdel-Salam and Sabry A Mousa
Abstract
Abstract
This study evaluated the impact of seasons (Summer, Autumn, Winter and Spring) and breeds of dairy goats (Shami, Mixed boar and Baladi) on selected serum parameters and milk profile. Forty-nine apparently healthy lactating dairy goats belonging to a private farm in El-Beharah governate, Egypt, were used in this study. Their ages ranged from 3-4 years old and their body weights ranged from 30-40 kg. According to breeds, they were classified into 17 Shami, 14 Mixed Boar and 18 Baladi, and according to seasons, they were classified into 12 Autumn, 13 Winter, 12 Spring and 12 Summer. Goats were exposed to detailed case history and clinical examination to be ensure they are free from any illness. Serum and milk samples were collected from goats at the middle of each season. calcium increased significantly in Summer with variable results among groups. Regarding overall mean, inorganic phosphorous showed significant decline in Summer, while decreased significantly in Baladi than Shami. Seasons-breeds interaction showed that inorganic phosphorous increased significantly in Shami in Autumn than Shami, Mixed boar in Summer and Baladi in Autumn. Albumin in Mixed Boar significantly increased in Summer than Autumn. Milk profile revealed that fat % increased significantly in Mixed boar in Autumn than Shami in Spring, Baladi in Autumn and Summer. Lactose % increased significantly in Baladi than Shami and Mixed Boar. Milk Protein % increased significantly in Baladi than Mixed Boar. It could be concluded that there was a considerable effect of seasons and breeds on selected serum biochemical parameters and milk panel in lactating dairy goats in Egypt. Current findings are important for goat breeder and manufacturer of goat milk products to improve breed selection and crossbreeding program.
Keywords: Seasons, Breeds, Serum, Milk profile, Dairy Goats, Egypt
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Effect of Multi-species Probiotic Supplementation on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Status and Incidence of Diarrhea in Neonatal Holstein Dairy Calves
Mandouh MI, RA Elbanna and HA Abdellatif
Abstract
Abstract
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of probiotic on growth performance and general health status of newborn dairy calves. Twenty-four Holstein dairy calves were used in a 20-day experiment, and were divided into three groups. A control group (CON) was fed on pasteurized whole milk non-supplemented with probiotic for 20 days, the second group was fed on pasteurized whole milk supplemented with 20 grams of probiotic for 5 successive days only, then fed on pasteurized whole milk non-supplemented with probiotic until the end of the experiment (PRO5) and the third group was fed on pasteurized whole milk supplemented with 20 grams of probiotic for 10 successive days, then fed on pasteurized whole milk non-supplemented with probiotic until the end of the experiment (PRO10). Body weight, body conformation, and fecal scoring were recorded on d 0, 10, and 20. Blood samples were collected on d 10 and d 20. Key antioxidant enzymes were assessed beside the liver and kidney function indicators. Data were statistically analyzed using PROC MIX procedures of SAS 9.4 software. Body weight and body weight gain were not affected by probiotic supplementation; but heart girth tended to increase in probiotic fed calves (P = 0.08). Incidence of calf diarrhea was 50% in CON and 37.5% in both PRO5 and PRO10 groups. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were reduced (P = 0.05), while globulin level tended to increase (P = 0.10) in probiotic treated calves. Our results suggest that supplementation of suckling calves with multi-species probiotic is beneficial to reduce the incidence of diarrhea.
Keywords: Neonatal calf diarrhea, Probiotic, Growth performance, Dairy calves
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