Volume 11, No. 1, 2022 (In Progress)

The Effects of Prenatal Exposure of Rabbit to Valproic Acid
Mohamed R, Modeste C, Beharry K, Kheju J, Labadie D and Suepaul R
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 1-6.
Abstract
Abstract
The present study was conducted to determine the prenatal effects of sodium valproate (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, in pregnant rabbits. Ten adult female rabbits were classified into treatment and control groups. The drug was administrated to the treatment group as oral doses of 400mg/kg of VPA for 15 days starting from the 6th day after mating until the 20th day of pregnancy, while the control group received water at the same volume and period. The pregnant rabbits were euthanized on the 29th day of pregnancy. The fetuses were collected, and the crown rump length and weight were taken. No gross or microscopic abnormalities were seen in the control group. Gross examination of the treatment group showed reduction in size and length of the fetuses and resorption of fetuses as well as retarded ossification, abnormal growth of the ribs and missing sternebrae. However, no abnormalities were seen microscopically. It was found that the use of VPA during pregnancy resulted in intrauterine growth retardation manifested by decreased fetal body weight, length, and skeletal abnormalities.
Keywords: Fetus, Prenatal, Rabbit, Valproic acid.
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Isolation, Characterization and Pathogenicity of the Most Common Bacteria Associated with Gut Health in Egyptian Broiler Chicken Flocks
Ali Z. Qandoos, Nayera M. Alatfeehy and Wafaa A. Abd El-Ghany
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 7-15.
Abstract
Abstract
This study was designed to isolate and characterize the pathogenicity of the most common bacteria causing enteric diseases in broilers in some Egyptian governorates. Enteric bacterial organisms like Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonellae, and Clostridia perfringens (C. perfringens) were isolated and identified from 100 dead and diseased broilers in Giza, El-Kalubia and El-Sharqia governorates. The samples were subjected to conventional isolation as well as biochemical and serological identification techniques. Molecular and toxigenic detection of C. perfringens were performed on one selected isolate by multiplex PCR. The pathogenicity test of some isolated bacterial strains was done on 80 a-day-old broiler chicks. The clinical observation, performance parameters, bacterial re-isolation and histopathological examination were carried out after bacterial challenge. The results revealed isolation of E. coli, Salmonella and C. perfringens in rates of 17, 11 and 39%, respectively. Serological identification of E. coli revealed that O78 (35.2%) and O1 (23.5%) were the highest isolated serotypes, while O117 (17.6%), O91 (11.7%), O112, and O146 (5.8% each) were the lowest ones. Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) was the most prevalent (36.3%) followed by S. kentucky, S. larochelle (27.2%, each) and S. inganda (9%). Multiplex PCR of C. perfringens strains revealed presence of both cpa and cpb genes that encoding to alpha (?) and beta (?) lethal toxins, respectively. The pathogenicity of E. coli O78, S. enteritidis, and C. perfringens were tested in broiler chickens. The results showed that E. coli O78, S. enteritidis and C. perfringens were pathogenic strains. It was concluded that enteric bacterial pathogens especially E. coli O78, S. enteritidis, and C. perfringens type C are widely distributed in Egyptian broiler chicken flocks and still causing severe losses because of mortalities and decreasing in production.
Keywords: E. coli; Clostridium; Broiler; Egypt; Salmonella.
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Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in Cows and Buffaloes in Egypt
Hassan F. M. Mo’awad, Mona M Sobhy, Tamer F. Ismail and Mona El-Enbaawy
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 16-22.
Abstract
Abstract
Q fever is a zoonotic disease of public health significance caused by Coxiella burnetii affecting animals’ productive and reproductive capabilities. This study aimed to compare seroprevalence of anti C. burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies (Abs) in cows and buffaloes in Egypt. Total of 314 serum and 282 milk samples were collected from 546 cows, and 50 buffaloes located in Assuit, Bani-Swif, Dakahlya, Fayoum, Giza, and Minya Governorates from 2015 to 2017. Animal reproductive status was recorded. Anti-Coxiella Abs were detected using Immuno-Fluorescent Antibody assay (IFA). In addition, seropositive samples were subjected to qPCR targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase-deficient (icd) gene. Differences in seropositive IgG and IgM in serum and milk samples among animal species, Governorates and animal reproductive status were investigated. In this study, overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii Abs was 31.5% (188/596). Considering sample type, IgG positive exceeds that of IgM in both sera and milk. IgG seroprevalence was significantly higher in serum (25.5%) than in milk (14.2%). In addition, within serum, IgG was significantly higher than IgM (12.1%). No significance was found between Governorates in IgG or IgM neither in serum nor in milk. However, significant higher seropositive IgG over IgM was observed in Assuit, Beni-Swif and Minya with 21.7, 24.5 and 23.9%, respectively. Regarding animal species, seroprevalence in cows (20.9%) was higher than in buffaloes (12.0%). IgG seroprevalence of cows was significantly higher in serum (26.0%) than milk (14.8%). In addition, within serum, seropositive IgG was significantly higher than IgM (12.5%). Both IgG and IgM seropositive were significantly the highest in abortion. Also, IgG seropositive was significantly higher in repeat breeder than apparent healthy. In buffaloes, only IgM seropositive was significantly the highest in abortion. In cows’ sera, significant higher IgG over IgM was observed in all reproductive status. While in cows’ milk samples, only abortion showed significant higher IgG over IgM. In buffaloes, no significant difference was observed between IgG and IgM neither in sera nor in milk. The icd gene of C. burnetii was detected only in 6 milk (8.6%) and 2 serum samples (1.7%). (In conclusion, the study revealed a wide distribution of infections over the study area. To set a preventive and control strategies of Q fever, further epidemiological studies are recommended. The study recommends using IgG in studying Q fever seroprevalence).
Keywords: Coxiella burnetii, IFA, IgG, IgM, Cows, Buffaloes, Egypt.
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Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Morphometric Variables of Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Kalimantan Island
Suhardi Suhardi, Widya Pintaka Bayu Putra, Ari Wibowo, Arif Ismanto3, Rofik, Muhammad Ichsan Haris, Apdila Safitri, Ibrahim1 and Pijug Summpunn
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 23-27.
Abstract
Abstract
Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is important livestock by farmers at Kalimantan Island for meat production and drought purposes. This research was carried out to classify buffalo (about 3.5 years of age) based on their morphometrical measurements. The animals in this study were collected from North Kalimantan (NK), East Kalimantan (EK), and South Kalimantan (SK) regions. A Total of 50 animals (25 males and 25 females) were collected from each region. Thus, eight morphometrics of withers height (WH), body length (BL), chest girth (CG), shoulder width (SW), chest depth (CD), rump height (RH), rump width (RW), and rump length (RL) were measured in this study. Research findings showed that four morphometrics of WH, RL, CG, and BL were described as the discriminating variables. According to the Euclidean distance, the buffalo from EK and SK were grouped into a similar cluster. Meanwhile, the buffalo from NK was grouped into a different cluster. Therefore, the observed morphometrics in this study was capable to classify buffalo at NK (100%), EK (66%), and SK (70%) into their original population group. In conclusion, the buffalo at EK and SK regions have an imminent genetic relationship. Moreover, a study to classify buffalo using cranial measurements is important to support this finding due to mtDNA analysis.
Keywords: Buffalo, Canonical analysis, Euclidean distance, Kalimantan, Morphometrics.
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Topographic and Morphometric Study on the Kidneys of Balady Rabbit Enhanced by Ultrasonographic, Radiographic and Computed Tomography Scan
Hanaa M. EL-Ghazali, Saeed Mohammed Saleh Ammar, Sherif Kh. A. Mohamed, Mohamed Gomaa and Sahar Mohamed El-Sayed Ibrahim
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 28-36.
Abstract
Abstract
The aim of this work is to throw more light on using some recent techniques as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and contrast radiography in examination of the kidney of Balady rabbit. The current work was carried out on 23adult healthy Balady rabbits. Topographical, morphometrical and radiographical examination on kidneys were occurred. Ultrasonographically, the animal was examined in both dorsal and lateral recumbency. Both kidneys were scanned in longitudinal and transverse planes. The different ultrasonographic measurements of both kidneyswere recorded.The rabbit was positioned in ventral recumbency and CT images were taken without contrast medium using multi-slices CT system. The right kidney was slightly anterior to the level of left one by its length. The right lobe of liver separated the right kidney from the stomach cranially. The left kidney was separated from the stomach and spleen with the ascending duodenum and jejunum. By contrast radiographs, both kidneys appeared clearly as dense soft tissues with distinct borders against the neighboring vertebrae and ribs. In the longitudinal ultrasonographic scanning plane, the medulla revealed anechoic nearly circular areas represented the peri-pelvic columns which separated by hyperechoic secondary septa. The main pelvic septum appeared hyperechoic. We could easily distinguish between the cortex and medulla in both longitudinal and transverse scanning plane. Therefore, we hope to contribute to clinic and histopathological diagnosis of kidney diseases.
Keywords: Kidneys, Cortex, Medulla, Ultrasonographic, Computed tomography (CT) scan, X-ray, Echogenicity.
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Antibiotic Residues in Locally Marketed Fresh and Frozen Livers in Cairo and Giza, Egypt
MH Ahmed, EM Riad1, OM Diab, HA Mansour and MKh El-Mossalami
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 37-42.
Abstract
Abstract
This study was performed to detect the antibiotic residues in marketed fresh and frozen liver samples using microbiological bioassay method. One hundred fresh and frozen beef liver samples (50 samples for each) were examined by microbiological bioassay for antibiotic residues, 20 fresh samples (40%) react positive and 2 frozen samples (4%) were positives. Tetracyclines residues were found in all positive fresh and frozen liver samples with an average of 28.7±5.5 and 14.9±5.7µg/g for fresh and frozen liver samples respectively. Aminoglycosides (Gentamycin) residues were found in 1 fresh liver sample (2%) with a concentration 35µg/g while not found in frozen liver samples. The HPLC technique was used for all positive samples for detection of oxytetracycline residue. All positive samples were above the permissible limit according to (National Organization of Food Safety Resolution (13/2020). Effect of cooking has a great effect on elimination of oxytetracycline while freezing has lower effect on oxytetracycline.
Keywords: Antibiotic, Oxytetracycline, Liver, Residue, Bioassay.
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The Occurrence and Diversity of Flies Related to the Bali Cattle Breeding System in Badung Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia
I Made Dwinata1 and Ida Bagus Made Oka
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 43-48.
Abstract
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the occurrence and diversity of flies’ species in an intensive and extensive farming system. The flies were collected from October to December 2019 by sweeping net in two cowsheds (intensive and extensive farming system) on a private Bali cattle farm in Badung regency, Bali province, Indonesia. A total of 4125 flies belonging to 4 species (Stomoxys calcitrans, Musca domestica, Haematobia irritans, and Hippobosca sp.) were obtained. At the intensive breeding system, the most collected flies were Stomoxys calcitrans (42.58%) and the rare ones were Hyppobosca sp. (3.25%). At the extensive breeding system, the most collected flies were Stomoxys calcitrans (33.86%) and Haematobia irritans were the least abundant (11.36%). Stomoxys calcitrans were observed abundance in Mengwi district, whereas Musca domestica were highest in South Kuta district. It was concluded that the abundance of flies during the study period was affected by farming system, temperature, humidity, and rainfall.
Keywords: Diversity, Extensive farm, Flies, Intensive farm, Bali cattle.
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Phenotypic and Genotypic Investigation of Yeast Species Associated with Bovine Subclinical Mastitis with a Special Reference to their Virulence Characteristics
Hanaa AE Asfour, Rasha H Eid1, Safaa A EL-Wakeel, Tahani S Behour and Samah F Darwish
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 49-58.
Abstract
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate yeast species associated with subclinical bovine mastitis in dairy farms. It is based on isolation using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) followed by identification of isolates using HiCrome Candida agar and ITS-PCR-RFLP. Out of 405 milk samples, 31.6% were positive for yeast isolation on SDA. Based on HiCrome Candida agar and ITS-PCR assay, isolates were classified into 90 pure isolates and 38 mixed cultures. Only pure isolates were subjected to species identification and virulence evaluation. By HiCrome Candida agar media, the most frequently isolated species were C. krusei, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans (13.3% for each) while C. guilliermondii was the least isolated Candida species (1.5%). ITS-PCR-RFLP identified 67 isolates which included non-albicans Candida (NAC) species and Trichosporon assahii. Neither C. albicans nor C. galabrata were identified. Twenty-three isolates could not be identified by ITS-PCR-RFLP. Difference between the results of HiCrome Candida agar and ITS-PCR-RFLP methods was obvious. Considering slime production, 83.6% were slime producers while 16.4% were not. All strains of C. krusei, and C. tropicalis were slime producers. Regarding biofilm production, 80.6% of isolates had the ability to form biofilm ranged from strong (6%), moderate (14.9%) to weak (59.7%) while only 19.4% were non-biofilm producers. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of isolates displayed different susceptibility and resistance patterns. Conclusively, yeast mastitis in dairy cows demonstrates a growing problem. The diagnosis must rely on accurate laboratory diagnostic tests. The significance of NAC and other yeast genera specifically genus Trichosporon and their role in the etiology of mycotic mastitis should be emphasized.
Keywords: Yeast, Bovine mastitis, PCR-RFLP, Biofilm formation, Slime production, Antifungal susceptibility.
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Effect of Essential Oils on Biological Criteria of Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Diseased Broiler Chickens
Ismail Abdel-Hafeez Radwan, Marwa M. M. Moustafa, Shimaa Hassan Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed Ali and Ahmed Hussien Abed
Int J Vet Sci, 2022, 11(1): 59-67.
Abstract
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate Gram-negative bacterial pathogens isolated from liver affections in broiler chickens. The antibacterial effect of some essential oils (EOs) and their effects on isolated bacteria’s biological and phenotypic criteria were also investigated. One hundred and twenty liver samples were subjected to bacterial isolation, biochemical and molecular identification of the isolated bacteria. The antibacterial effect of cinnamon, oregano, clove, turmeric, and eucalyptus EOs at different concentrations was evaluated using the agar dilution method. Pre-and Post EOs treatment biological activity (motility, biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence gene detection or expression) were evaluated in selected bacteria. Results revealed 85% prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Mannheimia haemolytica (M. haemolytica), Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis). Most isolates were multiple antibiotic resistant, including quinolones and fosfomycin antimicrobials. A 0.1% concentration of cinnamon and oregano EOs effectively inhibited the growth of 80-100% and 50-100% of the tested bacterial spp, respectively; however, clove, turmeric, and eucalyptus EOs had no effect. Interestingly, after treatment with oregano or cinnamon oils, few of the resistant S. enteritidis, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible or intermediately sensitive to some antimicrobials. Similarly, the motility of S. enteritidis and, to a more extent P. aeruginosa was significantly reduced. Both EOs had no significant effect on S. enteritidis biofilm-forming ability; however, they inhibited the biofilm-forming ability of 10% and 100% of the tested E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates, respectively. Standard PCR and real-time quantitative PCR did not reveal any significant change of either detection or differential expression of selected genes in the treated isolates. In conclusion, EOs are promising alternatives to minimize synthetic antimicrobials against multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Finally, the antibacterial activity of EOs are mainly attributed to the induced structural disturbances in the treated bacteria.
Keywords: Broiler chickens, E. coli, Salmonella, Essential oils, Cinnamon, Oregano.
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