Volume 9, No. 3, 2020

Research Articles
Synthesis and Characterization of Florfenicol-Silver Nanocomposite and its Antibacterial Activity against some Gram Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
Fady Sayed Youssef, Hossny Awad Elbanna, Hisham Youssef Elzorba, Ahmed Mohamed Galal, Gehad G Mohamed and Sameh H Ismail
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 324-330.
Abstract
Abstract
In this paper, easy, rapid and cheap synthetic method was described for florfenicol-silver nanocomposite by sonochemical method. Florfenicol-silver nanocomposite was characterized based on three classes namely index, identification and morphology class. Index characterization was carried out by zeta sizing, BET surface area and zeta potential. Identification characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. Morphology characterization was done utilizing transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Characterization results showed zeta sizing of florfenicol was 30.44nm, while florfenicol-silver nanocomposite was 33.5 nm with zeta potential -14.1 and -18, respectively. BET surface area was found to be 13.3, 73.2 and 103.69 m2/g for florfenicol, silver nanoparticles and florfenicol-silver nanocomposite respectively. XRD and Raman charts confirmed the formation of florfenicol-silver nanocomposite without any contamination. TEM, SEM and AFM spectral data illustrated spherical to sub spherical shape of silver nanoparticles on cubic to sheet shape of florfenicol with size less than 50 nm. Antimicrobial activity was screened where the average zone of inhibitions caused by the prepared nanocomposite were 28.3 mm, 24 mm, 27.3 mm and 24 mm compared to 17.7 mm, 16 mm, 18.7 mm and 13.3 mm of the native drug and 13 mm, 10 mm, 14.3 mm and 15 mm of the used positive reference standards against E. coli, Salmonella typhymurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staph.aureus MRSA respectively.
Keywords: Florfenicol-silver nanocomposite; Characterization; Antimicrobial activity
pdfFull text pdf
Effect of Bismuth Subnitrate Teat Canal Sealant with Ampicillin-Cloxacillin Combination in Control of Bovine Mastitis in Selected Farms in Kenya
Nashon Wavumbah Wanjala, George K Gitau, Gerald M Muchemi and Dennis N Makau
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 331-336.
Abstract
Abstract
This study presents the results of effect of a combination of bismuth subnitrate teat canal sealant (Boviseal® -Bimeda® Animal Health, Ireland) and the antibiotic Ampicillin & Cloxacillin (Bovaclox® DC-Norbrook Laboratories Ltd-UK) when used during the dry period on occurrence of mastitis 100 days post-calving. The objectives of this study were: to determine the effect of Boviseal® teat canal sealant in combination with Bovaclox® DC in control of dairy cow mastitis 100 days after calving; to determine bacterial pathogens causing mastitis in the selected farms and to determine risk factors for occurrence of dairy mastitis in the selected farms. This controlled field trial was carried out in two Kenyan dairy farms: Chemusian Farm in Nakuru County and Gicheha Farm in Kiambu County. 156 dairy cows were used in the study. Healthy cows with no history of mastitis in their current lactation were recruited. They were randomly placed into either of the two study groups: the control and the test group. The Control group received Bovaclox® DC while the Test group received the Bovaclox® DC followed by Boviseal®. The cows were followed during the entire dry period and 100 days post-calving monitoring for mastitis occurrence. Cows in the control group were more susceptible to mastitis 100 days post-calving compared to cows in the treatment group (P<0.001, RR=4.4, OR=17.7). Of the bacterial pathogens, coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most common pathogens isolated from mastitic milk at 34.6 % followed by Micrococcus spp. (9.0%). Other bacteria isolated were Streptococcus agalactiae (3.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (1.9%); Escherichia coli (0.6%) and various bacterial mixtures. Results of logistic regressions at P?0.05 showed that farm, position of the quarter, type of barn floor and type of treatment were significantly associated with occurrence of mastitis. Cows in Gicheha farm whose barn floor was earthen, those cows in the control group and hindquarters were risk factors for mastitis (RR=1.5, 4.4 and 1.18 respectively). The results of this study showed that Bovaclox® DC + Boviseal® teat canal sealant combination applied during the dry period is more effective in controlling bovine mastitis 100 days post-calving compared to the use of Bovaclox® DC alone. The study thus recommends the use of Bovaclox® DC + Boviseal® dry cow combination for control of bovine mastitis. Keywords: Dry cow mastitis; Teat sealant-antibiotic; Kenya
pdfFull text pdf
Role of Artesunate in Potentiation of ?-lactam Against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and its Histopathology Impact In-Vivo Study
Mohamed K Elbayoumy, Ahmad M Allam, Shimaa T Omara, Elgabry A Elgabry and Sherein S Abdelgayed
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 337-342.
Abstract
Abstract
This article discusses the augmenting influence of Artesunate (ART) in combination with ?-lactams (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) antibiotic in sepsis mice models infected by a lethal challenge dose of live coagulase positive enterotoxigenic (Sec) MRSA that was isolated from a case of chronic bovine mastitis. The main goal is to find an appropriate treatment to overcome resistance mechanism of MRSA towards ?-lactams antibiotic. Fifty healthy adult Swiss mice divided into 5 equal groups were used in the experimental procedure. The infected group that treated with both ART and ?-lactams (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) antibiotic revealed complete inhibition of MRSA count with complete normal macroscopic and histopathological features. We suggest that ART can potentiate the antibacterial action of ?-lactams (amoxicillin/Clavulanic) acid against MRSA infection. The combination of ART and antibiotic can overcome MRSA resistance mechanism and so could be considered a novel candidate to overcome mastitis and/or sepsis caused by MRSA.
Keywords: Mastitis, MRSA, ?-lactam, Artesunate, Mice, Histopathology.
pdfFull text pdf
Factors Affecting Ovarian Activity in Donkeys: The Effect of Season, Age and Body Condition Score (BCS)
Sherif M. Shawky, Ahmed S. Abdoon, Said I. Fathalla, Omaima M. Kandil, Afaf A. Kishta and Shimaa R. Masoud
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 343-348.
Abstract
Abstract
During the period of year (representing spring, summer, autumn, and winter) Jennies at Giza Zoo abattoir were checked for body condition score (from 1 to 5), age (1 to 7 years; 8 to 14 years; and >15 years old). After culling, ovaries of 377 Jennies were collected, two ovaries were weighed, and the number and size of ovarian follicles were recorded. Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes (COCs) were collected after the ovarian follicles have been sliced and scraped, and COCs number and quality were determined. Data indicated that right and left ovaries and overall ovarian weight were significantly increased (P<0.05) in summer than the other seasons. The number of small size ovarian follicles was decreased (P<0.05) in spring than other seasons, while oocytes number and quality were not significantly affected by season. Jennies of 1 to 7 years old showed a significant (P<0.05) smaller left ovary and total ovarian weight than the two other groups. Jennies of 8-14 years old) have a significant high (P<0.05) small size and a whole number of ovarian follicles than the other groups. Jennies with BCS-3 possess a significantly (P<0.05) higher total ovarian weight, total number of ovarian follicles and the total number of COCs recovered than BCS-1 or BCS-4. While the BCS-4 group showed the lowest (P<0.05) number of ovarian follicles and produced less (P<0.05) number of COCs than the other groups. Conclusion: In Egyptian Jennies, ovarian activity was affected by season, BCS and age of the animal, while, COCs yield and quality were more affected by BCS. Keywords: Jennies; Season; Body condition score; Age; Ovarian weight; Follicles.
pdfFull text pdf
Amelioration Effect of Carica papaya Fruit Extracts on Doxorubicin – induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats
Taha M. Gaber, Sam M. A. El-Hamamsy, Nafea S. Ahmed and Mamdouh M. Ali
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 349-354.
Abstract
Abstract
Papaya (Carica papaya Linn) belongs to the family Caricaceae. Papaya is commonly known for its food and nutritional values throughout the world. Papaya possess excellent medicinal properties for treatment of different ailments. This article focuses on the antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity and antitoxin activity of papaya. The antioxidant activity of Carica papaya Fruits, have the highest of reducing power which were 184.15, 151.19 and139.52%, at the concentrations of 40mg/ml, of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extract, respectively. Also, when using (DPPH), of the same extract, the IC50 value were 0.809, 0.832 and 0.896 at the concentrations of 40mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed the active effect of plant extracts as antitoxin when tested on rats.
Keywords: Carica papaya fruits; Antioxidant and Antitoxin.
pdfFull text pdf
Increased Production of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Helicobacter pylori Infection that Stimulates Gastric Cancer Stem Cells
Gelaan SZ Saleh, Mona IH El-Enbaawy, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman and Sherif Marouf
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 355-360.
Abstract
Abstract
Background and aim: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an incriminated pathogen causing diseases in both animals and humans and considered a zoonotic pathogen. H. pylori infection is considered a cause of gastric cancer, which rests a significant health care challenge. This study analyzes the expression pattern of matrix metalloprotein 2 (MMP-2) in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and the effect of H. pylori on gastric cancer stem cells, as well as study the role of helicon bacteriosis in dog in transmission of H. pylori infection to human. Materials and methods: Fifty-five of each sample (gastric biopsy, blood and stool) were collected from patients suffering from dyspepsia, chronic vomiting and perforated peptic ulcers and also from apparent healthy dogs. The investigation detected H. pylori by serological and histopathological examination. Biopsies were stored in physiological saline for identification of H. pylori by conventional time PCR. MMP-2 and Gastric cancer stem cells were then identified by immunohistochemistry. Results: Serological identification for H. pylori Antigen and Antibodies revealed (63% human, 50% dogs) and (87% human, 90% dogs) respectively were positive. Genotyping of H. pylori based on 16S rRNA gene showed 54.5% of human and 35% of dogs were positive. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong expression of CD44 in H. pylori- associated gastric cancer cases, MMP-2 expression was observed in all neoplastic lesions associated with H. pylori infection. Conclusion: H. pylori infection affects gastric mucosa and induces changes in gastric stem cells altering their differentiation and increased expression of MMP’s and CD44with a resultant potentiation of oncogenic alteration. In addition, the up-regulation of both markers could be an instrumental to interpret the origination of gastric cancer.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, MMP-2, Gastric cancer, Gastric cancer stem cell, Dogs.
pdfFull text pdf
Arterial Blood Supply and Angiography of the Fore Foot in One- Humped Camel (Camelus dromederius)
Samah. H El-Bably and Asmaa M Ibrahium
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 361-366.
Abstract
Abstract
The present study was conducted on eight fresh forelimbs to investigate a detailed anatomical description of the arterial blood supply in adult dromedary camel’s foot. Anatomical and angiographic techniques were used in order to give detailed data about the origin and pattern of distribution of these arteries. Moreover, this data serves other researchers in comparison with different animals. The specimens injected with red colored gum milk latex for anatomical dissection and urograffin injection for angiographic purposes throughout the median artery. The main arterial blood supply of camel’s digit was derived from common palmar digital artery, palmar metacarpal artery, in addition to smaller branches detached from the dorsal metacarpal artery.
Keywords: Anatomy, Camel, Arteries, Foot.
pdfFull text pdf
Osteogenic Potential of 3-D printed Multilayered Poly L-lactic Acid (PLLA) Scaffold on the Healing of Critical-sized Bone Defect in Dogs
Amani M Nagi, Elham A Hassan, Asmaa K Al-Mokaddem, Ahmed F Abd El Azeem and Mohamed A Abdel Hamid
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 367-372.
Abstract
Abstract
Critical sized bone defect is a major challenge for orthopedic surgeons. These defects result following any pathologic condition leading to massive bone loss. Synthetic and biological based tissue engineered biomaterials and their combinations provide a promising substitute to fill the defect site. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osteogenic potential of 3-D printed multilayered medical grade PLLA scaffold with collagen and nano hydroxyapatite for the healing of induced critical-sized bone defect in dogs. An experimental study was conducted on 12 skeletally mature male dogs. Critical defect (25mm) was induced into the right femur of all dogs. Dogs were randomly allocated into one of the following groups (4 dogs/group). PLLA scaffold seeded with nano hydroxyapatite and collagen molded on the defect (PLLA/Collagen/nHA group), the second group; the defect seeded with collagen and nano hydroxyapatite (Collagen/nHA group), the third one was left without scaffold or additives (Sham operated group), and the operated animals were left for 12 weeks. Animals were evaluated clinically, radiographically and histopathologicaly. In (PLLA/Collagen/nHA group), all dogs showed an improvement in lameness degree from sever to apparently free from lameness. Radiography showed newly formed bone filling the defect with no inter zone. Histopathology showed more maturation of the newly formed bone in the defect site had occurred as well as defined bone trabeculae in comparing to other groups. In conclusion, 3D printed multilayered medical grade PLLA with collagen and nano hydroxyapatite provide biodegradable osteoconductive scaffold for enhancing the healing of critical sized bone defect.
Keywords: PLLA, Critical sized bone defect, Scaffold, Dog.
pdfFull text pdf
Effect of Nanoparticles Supplementation in Broiler Diets on Performance, Microbial Population and Digestive Tract Measurements
AM Tammam, SA Ibrahim, AA Hemid, F Abdel-Azeem and W Salem
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 373-378.
Abstract
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nanoparticles (silver and graphene) supplementation in broiler diets on productive performance, digestive tract and ceca length and microbiological analysis of small intestine and ceca contents. This study was designed to use silver nanoparticles (SNPs) (first experiment) or graphene nanoparticles (GNPs) (second experiment) with levels 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 ppm diet to compare between them. Each experiment included 200 Indian River (IR) broiler chicks at one day old divided randomly on 5 groups in 8 replicates. At 35 days, 4 birds were slaughtered to estimate digestive tract and ceca length and to perform microbiological analyses. All birds in two experiments were fed basal diets (control) supplemented with SNPs or GNPs at different levels till 5 weeks of age. Results of Exp.1 indicated a significant effect of different levels of SNPs on live body weight (LBW), body weight gain and feed intake (FI), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) was not affected. Lengths of digestive tract or ceca / 100 g LBW were insignificantly affected with different levels of SNPs. Microbiological analyses of small intestine and ceca content showed that Lactobacillus spp. increased significantly with increasing SNPs levels, while E. coli decrease significantly with increasing SNPs. Data of Exp.2 showed significant differences within values of live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio at 35 days with different levels of GNPs. The lengths of digestive tract or ceca / 100 g LBW were insignificantly decreased with increased level of GNPs. And, microbiological analyses of small intestine and cecum content showed that Lactobacillus spp. increased, and E. coli decreased significantly with increased GNPs levels. It could be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two types of nanoparticles (SNPs and GNPs) when supplemented in broiler diets on productive performance microbiological records of digestive tract.
Keywords: Broilers, Nanoparticles, Performance, Microbiological analysis, Digestive tract.
pdfFull text pdf
The Effectiveness of Methanolic Extracts of Five Plants on Different Salmonella Isolates
Eman Ragab1*, Heba Badr2, Amira AbuElkheir3 and Mona I Enbaawy
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 379-384.
Abstract
Abstract
Salmonellosis is known to be one of important issues that affect poultry industry as well as it can affect human health. Recently, multiple challenges are facing the use of natural antibacterial compounds, such as herbal extracts to overcome the massive increase in bacterial antibiotic resistance. Different Salmonella serotypes were recovered throughout examination of diarrheic poultry. These strains showed multidrug resistance by disc diffusion methods also, the resistance genes qnrS and aac (6?)-Ib-cr were detected in S. Enteritidis and S.Typhimurium which isolated from broiler’s organs and muscles. The methanolic extracts of five plants (Alhagi maurorum, Conyza dioscoridis, Coriander sativum, Caracuma longa and Cuminum cyminum) were tested for their antibacterial activity against different isolated Salmonella serotypes using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Conyza dioscoridis was the most effective extract retarding microbial growth of Salmonella Enteritidis, while other plant extracts showed variable antimicrobial activity. These results are promising in the way of replacing the antibiotic therapy with natural substances to overcome the multidrug resistance.
Keywords: Salmonella Enteritidis; Salmonella Typhimurium; Broiler; Methanolic plant extracts; Resistance genes.
pdfFull text pdf
Cat Brain Neuroanatomy using Cryosectioning, Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography Imaging Modalities
Hamdy Rizk, Nora A Shaker and Yahya Elemmawy
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 385-390.
Abstract
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities are invaluable for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases. This study aimed to correlate the anatomical sectional data of the cats’ brain to the sections obtained by both MRI and CT examination. The present work was conducted on four cats, 1-4 years old, weighing about (2.5 to 3.5) kg admitted to the hospital with terminal diseases not related to the nervous system. The anatomical sections were taken at intervals of 5 mm, on different planes such as sagittal, frontal and transverse. The sections were obtained, following humane euthanasia, from frozen heads and identified according to the previous literatures. The images from both MRI and CT were compared with those of the gross anatomy sections and different structures were identified. To identify arterial distribution in the brain, one cat was injected with red latex through the common carotid artery, frozen, and sectioned. For vascular imaging, the same cat was examined by MRI after intravenous injection of contrast media. The descriptions of the brain anatomy from the MRI and CT images will act as a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of different neurological diseases in cat. This will assist veterinarians and radiologists in the identification of various nervous lesions related to the brain.
Keywords: Cat, Brain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Computed tomography, Anatomy.
pdfFull text pdf
Detection of some Meat Adulterants in a Raw Minced Meat Product Model using Frozen Tissue Microarray Technique
Kassem Gehan M. Abdel-Aziz, Khalid A. El-Nesr and Heba H.S. Abdel-Naeem
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 391-396.
Abstract
Abstract
In recent years, interest in meat authenticity has been increased. Therefore, twelve groups of beef kofta product were formulated as soya bean, skin, skin emulsion and mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM); each of these substances was added with three different concentrations (40, 60 and 80%) in addition to control one. All group samples were subjected to two types of histological examination, conventional paraffin embedding method and frozen tissue microarray. The results of histological examination revealed that both techniques were accurate methods for identification of the separate components of the formulated product and considered extremely useful tools to judge its quality. Moreover, frozen tissue microarray was very helpful in obtaining the result in a short time and allows for examination of a large number of samples at the same time comparing to the conventional method. In addition, no hazard materials like formalin is used, also no ethyl alcohol or xylene is required in this technique. Therefore, microarray technique is reliable and practicable technique that could be used in food quality control laboratory to assess the quality and safety of meat products.
Keywords: Beef kofta, Soya bean, Skin emulsion, MDPM, Frozen tissue microarray.
pdfFull text pdf
Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Camel and Human samples from Aswan Governorate in Egypt
Saied Mahran, Rehab Elhelw and J. El-Jakee
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 397-402.
Abstract
Abstract
Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates among camel and human samples in Aswan.
Materials and Methods: A total of 320 samples: milk, nasal swabs and bus swabs were collected from camels (n= 290) and their human contacts (n= 30) from Aswan governorate. Disc diffusion test was applied to detect resistant and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA isolates. PCR was applied for detection of the virulence genes: nuc, hla, pvl, mecA, vanA, vanB and enterotoxins (sea, seb sec and sed) genes.
Results: 112 Out of 165 she camel milk samples (67.9%), 59 out of 125 camel nasal samples (47.2%), 3 out of 5 worker nasal swabs (60%) and 16 out of 25 abscesses’ swabs from human infected wound (64%) were positive for staphylococci. Only 34 out of 190 staphylococci were S. aureus (17.9%) and they were tested by PCR of the nuc gene. All S. aureus isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. The two human isolates were resistant to streptomycin and erythromycin. Among 25 % of S. aureus isolated from camel milk samples were resistant to gentamicin and ceftriaxone (each), 50% and 31.2 % were resistant or intermediate resistant to streptomycin and clindamycin respectively. Among S. aureus isolated from camel nasal swabs, 18.8% were resistant or intermediate resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone (each). 13 out of 34 S. aureus isolates (38.2%) were MRSA. All S. aureus isolates were amplified 279 bp of nuc gene specific for S. aureus strains. While 28, 12 and 11 isolates were harboring hla, mecA and pvl genes respectively. All S. aureus isolates were negative for vanA, vanB and enterotoxins (sea, seb sec and sed) genes.
Conclusion: S. aureus and MRSA isolated from camel milk considered a potential health risk for food poisoning.
Keywords: Enterotoxin, Camel, hla, mecA and pvl genes, MRSA, S. aureus.
pdfFull text pdf
Comparing the Proximate Composition, Technological Properties and Sensory Attributes of Burger Patties and Emulsion Sausage Processed from Imported Brazilian and Indian Meat
Marwa A Hassan, Hussein MH Mohamed, Nabil A Yassien and Heba HS Abdel-Naeem
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 403-408.
Abstract
Abstract
This study was conducted to compare the technological properties of burger patties and emulsion sausages processed from imported Brazilian and Indian meat. Burger patties and emulsion sausage were processed from these meat and the processed products were analyzed for proximate chemical analysis, deterioration criteria, instrumental color, shear force, sensory attributes, cooking characteristics for burger patties, and emulsion stability for the emulsion sausage. The results revealed that using imported Brazilian chuck meat in processing of burger patties and emulsion sausage resulted in significant increase in L* values, moisture content, sensory attribute and significant decrease of a* values and shear force values and non-significant change of deterioration criteria. There were non-significant changes in cooking characteristics of the burger patties processed from imported Brazilian or Indian meat however; higher emulsion stability in emulsion sausage processed from imported Brazilian meat was observed. Therefore, Indian meat can be used in meat processing after Brazilian meat which may give chance to the producers to formulate good quality products from lower price meat source.
Keywords: Burger patties, Emulsion sausage, Technological properties, Indian, Brazilian.
pdfFull text pdf
Evaluation of One Shot and Two Shot Prostaglandin Injection on Estrus Response in Bali Cattle
I Gusti Ayu Komang Suastiningsih, I Gusti Ngurah Bagus Trilaksana and I Ketut Puja
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 409-412.
Abstract
Abstract
The aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of synchronization system with prostaglandins F2? (PGF2?) on bali cows. Sixteen bali cows with good body condition and normal estrus cycles were divided into two group, each group consist eight animal. Groups I which received estrus synchronization using 5 ml PGF2? (one shot prostaglandin) intramuscularly. Group II which received estrus synchronization consisted of two dose regimen injection on day 0 using 5 ml PGF2? (two shot prostaglandin)intramuscularly. On day 11 (11 days after first injection), recieved repeated injection using 5 ml PGF2?. All cows were monitoring the estrus occurrences twice times a day in the morning and afternon by observing estrus symptoms. Out of 8 cow recieved one shot prostaglandin, six (75%) cow exhibited estrus. The on set of estrus was 79.83 hours and the intensity of estrus was 66.67% (4/8) exhibited normal, In two shot prostaglandin found, five cow (62.5%) exhibeted estrus, The on set of estrus was 67.40 houers and the intensity of estrus was 80% exhibited normal.The results showed that there was no significant difference in estrus response, on set of estrus snd estrus intensity in bali cattle cows after injection of one shot prostaglanding and two shot prostaglandin. It is concluded that The study concluded that prostaglandin in one shot and two shot system was effective to synchronize post partum bali cows.
Keywords: Bali cattle, Prostaglandin, One shot, Two shot, and Estrus
pdfFull text pdf
Appraisal of Immunological Impacts of Melaleuca leucadendra Extract Over Macrophage Performance in Vitro
Ashraf S Hakim, Mona A Elshabrawy, Amany N Hashim, Magdy A Kamel, Sohier M Syame and Amany N Dapgh
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 413-416.
Abstract
Abstract
This trial research was performed to discuss the immune-influence of Melaleuca leucadendra ‘paper-bark tree’ dried leaves which is an important medical plant known in many regions in the world. The leaves were dissolved in a mixture of (ethanol?+?water) (3:1) mixture, then filtered, evaporated and dried under reduced pressure to obtain leaves extract. The macrophages of blood derived origin were provided from rats and mixed with three different leaves extracts doses in tissue culture plates and incubated then stained with fluorescent acridine orange and examined under fluorescent microscope to assess the phagocytic and killing potency. The wells contents were aspirated and assayed for nitric oxide and interleukin-2 levels. The results displayed an obvious increase in phagocytic, killing performance as well as nitric oxide and IL-2 level production than control in a dose dependent manner. The obtained results suggested the immune-stimulant impact of the paper-bark tree leaves.
Keywords: Interleukin-2, Macrophages, Melaleuca Leucadendra, Nitric oxide and Phagocytic activity.
pdfFull text pdf
Effect of Addition of Moringa Oleifera Extract to Tris Extender on the Preservability of Cattle Bull Semen
Reda I El-Sheshtawy and Walid S El-Nattat
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 417-420.
Abstract
Abstract
Moringa oleifera extract is a strong natural antioxidant that when was added to the semen extenders, it induced a cryoprotection to spermatozoa effect through elimination of the excess free radicals. So, the existing study intended for clarification of the consequence of extract of Moringa leaves (MLE) on bull spermatozoa after chilling and cryopreservation. MLE concentrations were 0% (control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (v/v) [MLE: TCF (Tris-citric-fructose diluent)] then 20% egg yolk was added, then the extended semen was assigned to the freezing protocol. Then, it was evaluated for (motility, alive, abnormality %, sperm membrane integrity % before and after freezing). Sperm motility was kept high with the concentration 10, 30 and 40% of MEEY till 8 days of chilling. The concentration 20% maintained sperm motility high till 7 days of chilling. Addition of MLE to TCF significantly (P<0.002) improved sperm motility in all concentrations except the 50% moringa enriched extender with egg yolk (MEEY) where sperm motility was maintained as the control. The use of MEEY maintained % of alive sperms and % of normal spermatozoal membrane (HOST%) as good as the control. In conclusion: moringa as a herbal supplement to semen diluents enhanced preservation in cooled and cryopreserved cattle bull semen. Keywords: Cattle; Moringa extract, semen, Cryopreservation.
pdfFull text pdf
Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus-based Probiotic on Canine Acute Diarrhea
Eman Ali Khalifa, Osama Mohamed Abdu and Hitham Abdel-Saeed
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 421-424.
Abstract
Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate therapeutic effect of commercial lactobacillus-based probiotic as a single therapeutic agent against acute diarrhea in dogs. About 47 dogs were studied in the present work, included 20 apparent healthy dogs and 27 diseased dogs suffered from acute diarrhea. About 17 diarrheic dogs were treated with probiotic for 5 days. Physical and clinical examinations were performed for all dogs. Blood and serum samples were collected to evaluate hemato-biochemical status at Day 0 and Day 5 after treatment. Stool was observed and scrutinized for its consistency during treatment. Results showed a decreased recovery time of diseased cases at 2.4±0.02 days. Significant decrease of PCV and WBCs count, significant increase total protein, albumin, A/G ratio and significant decrease of elevated ALT, AST and bilirubin at Day 5 was recorded compared to diarrheic dogs at day 0. Conclusion: the data indicates an efficient treatment with lactobacillus-based probiotic as solo therapeutic agent against canine acute diarrhea, not only reduce the recovery time, but also, enhance liver functions and improve the fecal consistency.
Keywords: Lactobacillus- Probiotic, Acute Diarrhea, Dogs, CBC, Biochemistry.
pdfFull text pdf
Investigation on Functional Reserves of the Testosterone-Synthesizing System in the Blood of 12-Month-Old Heifers in Different Breeds
VI Eremenko and EG Rotmistrovskaya
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 425-428.
Abstract
Abstract
The article presents the data on the functional activity of testosterone-synthesizing system in the 12-month-old black-and-white Holstein, Simmental, Aberdeen-Angus heifers, as well as cross-bred cows (Simmental x Aberdeen-Angus). The study had the following goals set: 1. To compare the data between the experimental groups of heifers of different breeds. 2. To carry out the functional stress tests of the testosterone synthesizing system in experimental heifers at the age of 12 months. 3. To study the functional activity of the testosterone-synthesizing system in experimental heifers of different breeds. 4. To calculate the activity coefficients of the testosterone-synthesizing system in experimental groups of heifers at the age of 12 months. The studies were carried out on black-and-white Holstein, Simmental, and Aberdeen-Angus heifers and their crossbred heifers (Simmental x Aberdeen-Angus). In order to determine the functional reserves of the testosterone synthesizing system, chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was intramuscularly administered at 12 months of age, and the activity of the testosterone synthesizing system was determined. The introduction of chorionic hormone at a dose of 0.5 units/kg causes hyperfunction of the testosterone-synthesizing system. Moreover, the maximum level of testosterone in the blood of heifers at 12 months of age was observed 24 hours after its third administration. The results of the effects of functional stress tests on the testosterone synthesizing system of the heifers indicate that the potential reserves of the testosterone synthesizing system in the Simmental and black-and-white breeds at the age of 6 months are lower than in Aberdeen-Angus and cross-breed animals.
Keywords: Breeds, Cattle, Functional reserves, Hybrid heifers, Testosterone, Testosterone synthesizing system.
pdfFull text pdf
Clinical and Diagnostic Studies on Common Causes of Canine Meningeo-Encephalitis in Egypt
Hitham Abdel-Saeed and Nagy E. Elmashad
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 429-432.
Abstract
Abstract
Canine meningeo-encephalitis triggered many causes, some of them can be distinguished and others are invisible and have a great challenge with small animal clinicians. The present study was conducted to detect the common causes of meningeo-encephalitis among dogs that were admitted to the small animal clinic, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt from March to December 2019. About twenty-eight dogs were studied and included thirteen apparently healthy dogs while fifteen dogs suffered from meningeo-encephalitis. All dogs subjected to thorough clinical examination. Whole blood and serum samples were taken for evaluation of hematobiochemical changes. In addition, conjunctival and nasal swabs were taken for rapid detection of canine distemper virus infection (CDV) infection. Also, fecal samples were taken for detection of parasitic infection. Results showed that CDV is the most recorded cause for meningeo-encephalitis. Other causes were recorded included Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Babesia canis and head trauma. Physical examination revealed significant increase in both respiration and heart rates in affected dogs. Hematological status revealed significant decrease in RBCs count and relative lymphocytes in affected dogs while there was a significant increase in WBCs count and relative neutrophils. Biochemical status indicated significant decrease in serum albumin and A/G ratio while there was a significant increase in serum activity of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level among diseased dogs. CDV infection is the most recorded cause for meningeo-encephalitis in dogs beside Toxocara spp., Babesia canis and head trauma. Infectious causes have an impact on physical, hematological and biochemical status in affected dogs.
Keywords: Meningeo-encephalitis, Dogs, Causes, CDV, Biochemistry
pdfFull text pdf
Histo-Morphometric Compression Finding of the Small Intestine in Rats and Rabbit According to Different Foods
Eyhab RM Al-Samawy, Diyar M.H.Kadhim, Ihab Abbas Taher, Hekmat B Alhmadi and Mustafa Salah Hasan
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 433-437.
Abstract
Abstract
In the present study, the histo-morphometric comparison study of small intestine in rats and rabbit was aimed. Ten of clinically healthy animals of both sexes were collected by Al-Simawa city, age ranged between 6month to 1 year, which was estimated according to the dental equation of the animals. The small intestine was cut and stained alternatively with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) and (Lilles Alchrome stain). The current study aims to discover the structures and measurement of small intestine belonging to these animals specifically their histo-morphometric textures. The anatomical studies revealed that small intestine of both animals consists of: duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Histological exam was showed that the wall of small intestine composed of four layers including: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa and adventitia. The epithelia of villi small intestine were simple columnar cells for each animal.
Keywords: Histology, Small intestine, Rats, Doudenum and Epithelium.
pdfFull text pdf
Using Histological and Chemical Methods for Detection of Unauthorized Tissues Addition in Emulsion Type Meat Product
Nermeen Makram Louis Malak, Yasmine Hamdy Ahmed AwadAllah and Hamdy Mohamed Bakry Abdelhady Zaki
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 438-442.
Abstract
Abstract
Total twenty different processed meat plant producing emulsion type sausage were histologically and chemically examined for detection of adulteration with unauthorized tissues. Results revealed that samples were adulterated with different types of animal tissues included; hyaline cartilage, tendon, spongy bone, peripheral nerve trunk, basophilic matrix, lymphatic tissue, fascia, fibrocartilage and vascular tissue. Moreover, these samples were adulterated Also, adulterated with plant tissue included; plant stem, leaves and root. Chemical analysis showed a significant difference in their chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and calcium) content. Moisture and fat content varied around the permissible limit of E.S.S. while low protein, high ash and calcium content was detected in the examined samples. Therefore, Histological and chemical examinations can be used as reliable methods to detect adultration using unauthorized addition of both animal and plant tissues in processed meat product samples which revealed a high level of falsification.
Keywords: Bone content, MDM, Processed meat, Plant fiber, Unauthorized tissues.
pdfFull text pdf
Hematological Indicators of Moose in Domestication Process
Anatoly Stekolnikov, Vasily Burdeyny, Vladimir Reshetnyak, Sergey Kovalev and Mikhail Elokhin
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 443-447.
Abstract
Abstract
Presented hematological indices for a stress-free selection of material from moose in the process of domestication depending on age and sex characteristics. Fluctuations in the blood parameters of moose have been established within various limits, taking into account the influence of various factors – the climatic, environmental, technological, physiological state of the animal, and age and sex characteristics. Considerable attention is paid to the selection of blood from moose, one of the most labor-intensive processes when working with them. Some tendency to fluctuations in hematological parameters in young moose has been recorded. This, possibly, is associated with a decrease in the action of colostral immunity, the formation of a specific defense of the body. Differences in blood indices in moose depending on gender were unreliable. However, in males, some of them – in terms of the content of erythrocytes, basophils, and monocytes – was higher than in females, and vice versa, in females – the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. It was shown that in young animals of 21-50 days of age, a neutrophilic profile prevails with increased content of segmented forms, and in adults – a lymphocytic profile. Compared with moose, which are in the process of domestication in animals living in natural conditions, expressed leukocytosis was recorded. As a result of the studies, the estimated norms of morphological parameters of the blood of moose in the process of domestication are established, depending on age and gender.
Keywords: Wild animals, Wildlife, Moose farm, Moose morphological features, Housing and feeding moose.
pdfFull text pdf
Bovine Cryptosporidiosis and the Egyptian Diarrheic Buffalo Calves
Dalia A Hamza, Soliman M Soliman, Noha Y Salem and Sara M Nader
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 448-452.
Abstract
Abstract
The negative impact of diarrhea on livestock health is well known, Cryptosporidium, is one of the protozoan that causes diarrhea in calves especially buffalo calves. Some species of Cryptosporidium represent a zoonotic hazard. This study aimed to distinguish the potential species of Cryptosporidium in affected buffalo calves and evaluate a modified technique to improve the molecular detection and identification of Cryptosporidium. Twenty buffalo calves suffered from diarrhea were enrolled in the study. The enrollment criteria depended on the results of Ziehl–Neelsen stain. Sugar floatation technique was performed followed by oocyst concentration to form a pellet for DNA extraction. Multiplex PCR was performed for identification and differentiation of Cryptosporidium Spp. The results showed a mixed infection in 4 samples; the most common type of Cryptosporidium affecting the examined buffalo calves was C.parvum (10), followed by C.bovis (7 samples) and C.andersoni (6 samples) while no C.reyne was detected in the examined samples. The zoonotic type, C.parvum was found in 50% of the total affected animals. The current study detects three Cryptosporidium spp. namely C.parvum, C. andersoni, and C.bovis linked to diarrhea in the studied buffalo calves. Mixed infection with more than one species of Cryptosporidium was present. Standard detection of oocyte in fecal samples using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain is a simple way for diagnosis of Cryptosporidium. However, a more sophisticated method is recommended to detect and differentiate the zoonotic species in calves, as they symbolize a crucial source of human infection.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium; Buffalo calves; Multiplex PCR; C.parvum; Diarrhea.
pdfFull text pdf
Detection of Multidrug Resistant Strains in Some Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Caused Otitis in Pet Animals
Hanan A Fahmy, Eman Mahrous and Rasha MH Sayed-Elahl
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 453-457.
Abstract
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of some bacteria and fungi causing otitis in dogs. Herein, 100 cases of dogs with otitis were examined by traditional techniques for both bacterial and fungal causes. The bacteria were isolated from 90% of the cases and fungi of Aspergillus spp. (82%), Candida albicans (65%) and Penicillium spp. (26%) of diseased dogs. Members of Staphylococcus Pseudointermedius (SP) were the predominant isolates (40%), followed by E. coli spp. (22%), Proteus spp. (18%) and Corynebacterium spp. (6%). The study of antimicrobial resistance revealed that all S. Pseudointermedius (SP) was resistant to Cefotaxime, and all E. coli spp. were resistant to Ampicillin and Erythromycin. Phenotypic characterization of drugs resistances genes was verified by multiplex PCR amplification using primers targeted to floR, qacA and sul1genes in most pathogenic multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates. While, in strains of SP the used primers were targeted to mecA-gene. All C. albicans isolates were resistant to Fluconazole in the antibiogram. With additional phenotypic characterization and detection of ERG11 gene, that is responsible for the drug resistance, by PCR amplification. In conclusion, there are significant drug resistance among several bacteria and fungi causing human and animal diseases particularly zoonotic infections between owners and their pets which resulted in public hazards. Therefore, the recent strategies directed to find a novel antimicrobial agent to overcome the drugs resistance by targeting removal of genes resistant.
Keywords: Otitis, Dogs, Antibiogram, SP, AMR.
pdfFull text pdf
Review Article
Dietary Influence of Yucca schidigera on Broilers and Layers: A Review
Asad Ali Khaskheli, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli, Allah Jurio Khaskheli and Arshad Ali Khaskheli
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 458-461.
Abstract
Abstract
In current research dietary influence of Yucca schidigera on broilers and layers were reviewed, whereby obtained results were found to be much interesting as well useful. It was revealed that dietary inclusion of Yucca schidigera in broilers significantly improve the feed consumption, average live body weight, water consumption, Feed Conversion Ratio, dressing percentage and weight of carcass weight. Digestibility significantly improves and lowest mortality occurs. In layers, production of eggs, weight of egg, egg white index, yolk, shell thickness, diet intake and feed conversion efficiency are considerably improved. Moreover, glucose, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, inorganic phosphorus, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione are significantly improved with dietary Yucca schidigera in layers as well as broilers. In conclusion, dietary Yucca schidigera is the best support the production and overall performance of broilers and layers.
Keywords: Broilers, Carcass weight, Layers, Performance, Production.
pdfFull text pdf
Short Communications
Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Meats of the Indonesian Indigenous Crossbred Chickens Fed Fermented Mixture of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Leaf and Seed Meal
Sugiharto Sugiharto, Endang Widiastuti, Isroli Isroli, Turrini Yudiarti, Tri A. Sartono and Hanny I. Wahyuni
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 462-465.
Abstract
Abstract
The objective of this present study was to investigate the effect of feeding fermented mixture of papaya leaf and seed meal (FERM) on the physical and chemical characteristics of meats of the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chicken (IICC). The study was carried out with 300 day-old IICC. The chicks were randomly distributed to five treatment groups, i.e., CONT (control diet based on corn-soybean- diet), FERMA (diet containing 1% FERM), FERMB (2.5% FERM), FERMC (5% FERM) and FERMD (7.5% FERM). Each treatment group consisted of 6 replicates with 10 IICC in each. At week 8, one chick from each replicate was randomly taken and slaughtered. After being de-feathered and eviscerated, samples from breast and thigh meats were obtained. Results showed that the increased levels of FERM was followed by the increased (P<0.05) pH values, moisture and crude protein content of breast meats of the IICC. Dietary incorporation of FERM especially at the level of 2.5% increased (P<0.05) the content of fat in the breast meat of IICC, while further increased levels of FERM did not alter (P>0.05) the fat content of the IICC breast meat. Dietary treatment did not have any effect (P>0.05) on the lightness (L*) values of breast meat of the IICC. The redness (a*) values were higher (P<0.05) in FERMD breast meat than other. FERM diet resulted in lower (P<0.05) yellowness (b*) values in the IICC breast meat. The pH values and moisture content of thigh meat increased (P<0.05) with the increased level of FERM. The WHC decreased (P<0.05) with the elevated levels of FERM in the diets. There was an increase (P<0.05) in crude protein concentration in FERMA as compared to the other meats. Crude fat and ash concentrations in thigh meat were affected (P<0.05) by the treatments. Dietary treatments had no impact (P>0.05) on L* values of thigh meats. Feeding FERM at 7.5% from diets increased (P<0.05) and decreased (P<0.05) the redness and yellowness of meats. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of FERM especially at the level of 7.5% from diets improved the physical and chemical characteristics of the IICC meats. Keywords: Crossbred chicken; Fermented feed; Meat quality.
pdfFull text pdf
Production of Polyclonal Antibodies against Pregnancy Associated Glycoprotein in Cattle
Rehab Ali, Mahmoud El-Hariry and Basma Hasanin
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 466-469.
Abstract
Abstract
Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are considered to be a large gene family in the trophoblasts of ruminants. PAGs determination precisely, PAG-1 in serum has been as the solid ground for pregnancy diagnosis in cow. Unluckily the PAG-1 and the antigenically related PAGs show a long half-life in serum less than 8 days and can be assessed 80 to 100 das postpartum, thereafter giving false results in cows bred within 60 days of calving. This study involves using novel polyclonal antibodies after immunizing rabbits and purification of the produced antibodies. The cattle are pregnant when the PAG hormone level is measured in a high level in a serum sample from the animal. It could give a precise method of detecting pregnancy at the early with few false positive results.
Keywords: PAG, Polyclonal antibodies, Early pregnancy, Cattle.
pdfFull text pdf
Efficacy of Live Vaccines and Specific Prevention in Chicken Infectious Bronchitis
Edward Javadov, Irina Vikhreva, Valentina Sukhanova, Olga Kozyrenko and Alevtina Kisil
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 470-472.
Abstract
Abstract
Infectious bronchitis of chickens (IBC) is a highly contagious disease characterized by damage to the respiratory tract. Adult chickens exhibit respiratory symptoms, a 10-50% decrease in egg production, discoloration of the eggshell, deformation of the shell, and a deterioration in the marketability and breeding quality of eggs. The circulation of variant strains in poultry farms of the Russian Federation causes a significant decrease in egg production and the quality of the eggs obtained, causing significant economic damage to industrial poultry farming. The study aimed to presents materials and methods for the industrial and efficient use of live-vaccines against infectious bronchitis of hens from a variant strain. After the use of a live vaccine against infectious bronchitis of chickens from a variant strain, the development, live weight of chickens, and feed conversion during the rearing period were within the standard parameters. in present study, the safety for the growing period with a planned 97.6% was 98.8-98.9%. The uniformity of the herds when transferred to hen – hen was 94-95%. When carrying out immunoprophylaxis of IBS, local immunity is important, which can be ensured using a live spray vaccine – a method starting from the day old. When establishing circulation in the economy of variant strains of IBC virus, it is necessary to introduce vaccination against the variant strain into the scheme of treatment and preventive measures. The research results allow us to conclude that, for the effective prevention of chicken infectious bronchitis, immunization against IBS from variant strains should be introduced into the vaccine prevention scheme.
Keywords: Chicken infectious bronchitis, Variant strain, Vaccination, Live vaccines, Egg production.
pdfFull text pdf
In-vitro Investigation of the Effect of Bee Venom on Schistosoma mansoni Eggs
Alaa H Saleh, Abeer M Badr, Soheir S Mahmoud, Noha A Mahana and Ahmed S Abo Dena
Int J Vet Sci, 2020, 9(3): 473-475.
Abstract
Abstract
Schistosomiasis (Bilharziasis) is a fatal parasitic disease caused by parasitic worms with the genus Schistosoma. The release of Schistosoma eggs in running fresh water contributes to completing its life cycle. Therefore, finding a suitable drug having ovicidal activity towards eggs is crucial. Here, we investigate the in-vitro effect of bee venom (the venom of Apis millifera) on the eggs of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni). The eggs were incubated with different concentrations of bee venom and then the percent mortality, hatchability and morphology of the eggs were observed. It was found that bee venom causes morphological alterations for S. mansoni eggs. In addition, there is a critical concentration (100 µg/mL) at which bee venom leads to the lowest mortality and the highest hatchability percent. Below or above this threshold, the mortality increases and the hatchability decreases. Moreover, bee venom was proven to have a lethal effect on S. mansoni miracidia.
Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni, Bee venom, Egg mortality, Hatchability, Morphological changes.
pdfFull text pdf