In Press Articles

Acute Phase Proteins, Hematobiochemical Profiles, Acid–base Balance and Blood Gas Alterations in Camel Calves Infested with Ticks
Mohamed Tharwat, Waleed R El-Ghareeb and Abdulrahman A Alkheraif
Abstract
Abstract
This experiment was designed to assess the status of acute phase proteins (APPs) serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, cardiac marker troponin I (cTnI), hematobiochemical profiles, acid–base and blood gas alterations in postnatal camel calves with tick infestation. Twenty-one camel calves (Camelus dromedarius), aged 1-4 weeks and weighing 30-65 kg were used. They were presented because of off milk, lethargy, recumbency and convulsions. Ten age-matched apparently healthy camel calves were used a control group. From both diseased and control groups, 3 blood samples were collected; one on EDTA for hematological analysis, the second on heparin for the determination of acid-base, blood gases, biochemical metabolites, electrolytes and lactate and the third on plain tubes for serum harvesting. Treatment has consisted of subcutaneous injection by ivermectin twice 15 days apart at a dose of 1mL per 50kg BW. Diseased calves were also sprayed with diazinon twice 72h apart at a concentration of 1mL/1L water. Hyalomma dromedarii predominated in all the diseased camel calves. Seventeen calves were presented in lateral recumbency position while the remaining 4 were admitted in sternal recumbency. The means ±SD of cTnI were 2.23±1.0 ng/mL versus 0.012±0.014 ng/mL in healthy animals. Serum concentrations of SAA in camel calves were 6.57±2.39 ng/mL in diseased versus 0.59±0.45 ng/mL in controls. Serum concentration of Hp were markedly elevated in camel with tick infestation (2.33±0.54mg/L in diseases group versus 0.25±0.26 mg/L in controls). There were significant increases in total white blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils in diseased camel calves compared to healthy ones. Red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly lower in diseased group versus healthy calves. Serum concentrations of albumin, calcium, blood urea nitrogen and phosphorus differed significantly between diseased and healthy calves. The serum activity of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, ?-glutamyl transferase and creatine kinase were significantly higher in tick infected camel calves versus healthy animals. The blood pH and anion gap were different significantly between diseased and healthy group. Highly significant differences were measured for lactate values in tick-infected calves competed to healthy group. In conclusion, this study showed that postnatal camel calves infested with Hyalomma dromedarii ticks had different clinical presentations either in lateral or sternal positions. Diseased calves have a prove of cardiac injury as a result of cTnI increases and acute phase reaction documented by significant alterations in SAA and haptoglobin. Unsound camel calves have also leukocytosis, anemia, metabolic acidosis and severe lactic acidosis.
Keywords: Biomarkers, Camels, Hyalomma dromedarii, Pathophysiology, Ticks.
pdfFull text pdf
Metabolic and Hematological Biomarkers Alterations during the Transition Period in Healthy Farm Animals: A Review
Mohamed Tharwat, Saleh Alkhedhairi, Islam M Saadeldin and Naglaa Gomaa
Abstract
Abstract
In the dairy animals, a critical stage particularly 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after parturition is named as the transition phase or period (TP), which is one of the most crucial physiological periods as almost all of the metabolic as well as infectious diseases happen during this stage. For addressing nutritional requirements and fulfill managemental strategic approaches to overcome these physiological and metabolic changes occurring at this period, a lot of research had been carried out for the better understanding of the biology of the animals during transition stage. Although these attempts, the dairy animal persist to show higher rates of metabolic diseases that are harmful to the welfare of animals and also for its productivity with following a significant financial impact on the stockholders. Several production diseases were encountered during TP; these disorders may include lameness, mastitis, rumen acidosis, ketosis, milk fever, left-displaced abomasum, fatty liver, hypophosphatemia, post-parturient hemoglobinuria, subacute ruminal acidosis, retained placenta and metritis. This review article emphasizes the significance changes during the TP in farm animals including cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels. This review will discuss alterations that occur physiologically during TP either in the hematological or biochemical parameters. In addition, hepatic fat contents, acute phase proteins, bone biomarkers, apoptosis of leukocytes and hepatocytes and nutrient metabolism biomarkers, oxidative stress and biomarkers of inflammation changes during TP.
Keywords: Animals, Diagnosis, Diseases, Physiology, Transition period.
pdfFull text pdf
Histology and Immuno-reactivity of S-100 Protein in Cranial Cervical Ganglia of Camels (Camelus dromedarius)
Ibrahim Ahmed Amira-Abualhassan, Hassan Ahmed Ali, Rasha Babikir Yasin, Fahad Abdallah Alshanbari and Zarroug Hassan Ibrahim
Abstract
Abstract
The cranial cervical ganglion (CCG) is a part of the cervical sympathetic chain located in the head and neck where it provides sympathetic input to their structures. In addition, CCG is associated with some neuropathies including Horner’s syndrome. S-100 is a biologically active protein that is initially detected in peripheral nerves and glial cells. Its immunoreaction in mammalian peripheral nervous system has been thoroughly illustrated. Similar data, however, seem to be lacking regarding dromedary camels. This study aimed to describe the histological structure and S-100 immuno-reactivity of dromedary camel CCG using conventionally processed microscopic slides. The CCG was covered by a dense capsule of connective tissue which sent connective tissue septa to form ganglionic units; the units mainly contained principal ganglion neurons (PGNs), satellite glial cells (SGCs), and small intensely fluorescent cells (SIFCs). Myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers, Schwann cells, collagen fibers, fibroblasts, and blood capillaries were also present between the ganglionic units. Small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized PGNs were detected with significantly different diameter lengths (P<0.05). S-100 immuno-staining was negative in the connective tissue septa, ganglionic connective tissue capsule, fibroblasts, blood vessels, and SIFCs. PGNs were S-100 positive with some neurons exhibiting negative to weak reactions. S-100 immunoreactivity was present in the glial capsules, SGCs, myelinated axons, and Schwann cells. In conclusion, as in other mammals, the ganglionic units of dromedary camel CCG are mainly formed of PGNs, glial cells, and SIFCs comprising the ganglion’s morphological triads. Further, the study indicated the immuno-reactivity of S-100 protein both in neuronal and glial elements of camel CCG. Keywords: Cranial cervical ganglia, Dromedary camel, Histology, S-100 protein expression, Animal Tissue
pdfFull text pdf
The Efficacy of Bovine Pituitary Extract for Treating Ovarian Hypofunction Cases in Bali Cattle
Desak Nyoman Dewi Indira Laksmi, I Gusti Ngurah Bagus Trilaksana, I Wayan Sukernayasa, I Wayan Nico Fajar Gunawan and I Made Merdana
Abstract
Abstract
Ovarian hypofunction is marked by the absence of a follicle or corpus luteum, which leads to a smooth ovarian surface during rectal examination. Furthermore, cattle affected by this disease experience an extended period of anestrus, where they do not display signs of estrus. This condition can be treated by administering gonadotropin hormones. One reliable source of these hormones is the bovine pituitary, which contains follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Therefore, this study aims to demonstrate the efficacy of bovine pituitary extract as a source of FSH in enhancing follicle development and inducing estrus response in cattle with ovarian hypofunction. The study was conducted experimentally using a completely randomized design with two groups: a control group and a treatment group. In the control group, cattle were injected with a placebo (Physiological NaCl) of 1.5mL intramuscularly in two repetitions. Meanwhile, 1.5mL of bovine pituitary extract was injected into cattle intramuscularly in the treatment group. FSH levels were measured at the Integrated Biomedical Laboratory, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. The administration of treatment and observation of estrus occurrence in Bali cattle were conducted in the Livestock and Breeding Center, Sobangan Village, Mengwi Sub-district, Badung Regency, Indonesia. The results showed that the FSH level in bovine pituitary tissue extract was 189.34 mIU/mL, while the diameter of the ovarian follicle increased from 5.13±0.4mm to 10.86±0.29mm. The time of estrus occurrence was 4.56±0.81 days after the administration of the extract. We concluded that administering 0.5g of pituitary extract could increase follicle development and induce estrus in cows with ovarian hypofunction.
Keywords: Bovine Pituitary Extract, Ovarian Follicle Diameter, Estrus Occurrence Time, FSH Level.
pdfFull text pdf
Hatching Performance of Kokok Balenggek Chicken (G1): Formation of Superior Local Chicken in West Sumatra
Husmaini, Linda Suhartati, Rusfidra, Fajri Aulia Rachman and Ananda
Abstract
Abstract
This study aims to determine the hatching performance of Kokok Balenggek chicken (KBC) using different males as the formation of superior local meat-type chickens. The study used an experimental method, randomized block design (RBD), with eight treatments and three groups. The treatment was male KBC (G0) and the group was the hatching period. Chickens are mated using Artificial Insemination (AI) with a sex ratio of 1:5. A total of 594 KBC egg were selected. The variables of this study consisted of fertility rate (FR%), embryonic mortality (EM%), hatchability of fertile egg (HRF%), and day-old chick (DOC) viability. Data were analyzed using Minitab version 19. The results of the study showed that individual differences in males had non-significant (P>0.05) effect on FR, EM, HRF and DOC viability. The average FR was (73.38%), EM (30.96%), HRF (69.04%) and DOC viability (90.73%). The macroscopic examination of KBC-G0 semen indicated volume as 0.31±0.11mL, consistency to be thick creamy with a milky white color and pH as 7.35±0.17. The microscopic examination of KBC-G0 semen indicated average ++ mass movement and sperm motility, viability and abnormality of spermatozoa to be 71.25±8.35, 78.34±6.22 and 11.67±2.90%, respectively whereas concentration of spermatozoa was 210.46±43.68 x 107 sperm/mL spermatozoa. In conclusion, the eight males KBC have the same and good hatching performance so can be used as males to produce KBC (G1) in the formation of superior local meat type chickens.
Keywords: DOC Viability, Fertility, Hatchability, Mortality, Semen Quality.
pdfFull text pdf
First Report on Ovariohysterectomy for the Treatment of Pyometra in a Golden Retriever Dog in Mongolia
Khandsuren Badgar, Khorolmaa Chimedtseren, Ochbayar Erdemsurakh, Oyuntsetseg Chuluunbat, Bilguunchinzorig Ganbold, Sanjaasuren Doljinsuren, Uyangaa Temuujin, Dong Yeop Kim and Gil Jae Cho
Abstract
Abstract
A 4-year-old female Golden Retriever dog was brought to the Animal Health Centre with complaints of anorexia, purulent and blood-tinged discharge, and white foamy vomit. The dog was clinically diagnosed with pyometra and was successfully treated with ovariohysterectomy. Bacteriological testing revealed a bacterial infection with Proteus vulgaris that was resistant to antibiotics including vancomycin, novobiocin, and penicillin. Histopathological examination showed multifocal cystic hyperplasia of the endometrial glands, severe abscessation of the glandular lumen, and severe infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the muscle layer. The dog recovered and showed normal hematology and biochemical parameters after ovariohysterectomy, antibiotics administrations, and supportive care. This case report including the diagnosis and surgical management of pyometra will be a very important resource for the development of small animal clinical skills and clinical training in Mongolia.
Keywords: Dog, Ovariohysterectomy, Pyometra, Treatment.
pdfFull text pdf
Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophage Streptococcus equi for Application against Horse Strangles
Makhpal Sarmykova, Bolat Yespembetov, Aidar Sambetbayev, Kali Tileukhanov, Andrey Kaldyrkaev, Andrey Shestakov, Aibarys Melisbek, Yerbol Burashev, Bekbolat Usserbayev and Nazym Syrym
Abstract
Abstract
Horse strangles is an acute infectious disease that manifests itself sporadically, enzootically, and epizootically and is widespread in Kazakhstan, where it mainly affects foals and young horses. The causative agent of strangles is the bacterium Streptococcus equi. In conditions of global antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages can become an effective means of treating horse stranglers. The research aim is to develop a new phage therapy against horse strangles using a local test strain of Streptococcus equi, namely bio-material isolated from a foal with strangles. When working with bacteriophages, the following methods were used: the Appelman (serial dilutions) and Grazia (agar layers) methods were used the isolation of bacteriophages and nutrient media GRM agar and GRM broth were used for the cultivation of bacteria and their phages. As a result, 6 bacteriophages were isolated from the studied 117 samples from the collected samples, after studying their basic biological properties, it was decided in further work to select the 1 most active bacteriophage specific to Streptococcus equi. This 1 bacteriophage was sequenced and registered in the Streptococcus phage BV0002 GenBank “Bank It2666451 Bacteriophagum OQ319049” (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/OQ319049). Genome-wide sequencing was performed on an automatic genome-wide sequencer Ion Torrent (Thermo Fisher Scientific, using the Ion XpressPlus Fragment Library Kit (Waltham, MA, USA). As a result, taking into account the highest percentage of identity of the analysed sequence in the international database using the BLAST algorithm, as well as the results of phylogenetic analysis, it was found that the selected bacteriophage belongs to the family Myoviridae, characteristic of the species Bacteriophagum Streptococcus equi.
Keywords: Horse strangles; Bacteriophage; Biological material; Test strains; Streptococcus equi; Environmental objects.
pdfFull text pdf
Exploring the Antimicrobial Potential of Spirogyra neglecta against Mastitis-Inducing Pathogens
Yuwadee Insumran, Jackaphan Sriwongsa, Kraijak Kaewprom, Weeradej Khonsuntia and Manakant Intrakhamhank
Abstract
Abstract
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that significantly threatens dairy productivity. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, it has become necessary to find alternative antimicrobial agents. Spirogyra neglecta, a filamentous green alga, is known for its diverse bioactive compounds. This study uses various solvents to investigate the antimicrobial potential of S. neglecta extracts against mastitis-inducing pathogens. The results show that methanol extract has the highest efficacy in inhibiting bacterial growth, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 8.75-200mg/mL. These findings highlight the promising antimicrobial capabilities of S. neglecta and its potential as a natural agent in combatting mastitis-inducing pathogens. This research paves the way for further exploration and utilization of S. neglecta in veterinary and pharmaceutical applications.
Keywords: Spirogyra neglecta, Mastitis, Antibacterial, Alternative therapeutics.
pdfFull text pdf
Intensity of Gastrointestinal Parasites and the Associated Risk Factors and Sero-Prevalence of Hemonchosis, among Camels in Egypt
NMF Hassan, A EL-Shemy, NM Abu El-Ezz, AM Allam and El Shanawany EE
Abstract
Abstract
The current study aims to determine the most dominant and zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites (GIPs) affecting camels in Giza Governorate in Egypt, and spotlight on hemonchosis among camels. A total of three hundred live camels at Elmoneib, and Kerdasa regions in Giza Governorate, Egypt were used for parasitological and sero-prevalence surveys, during the period extended from December 2022 to March 2023. Coprolological examination revealed that the overall prevalence of GIPs among camels was 80%. The animals harbored nine parasites including the zonotic ones Fasciola sp. (2%), Schistosoma sp. (1.7%), Cryptosporidium sp. (6.3%), and Balantidium coli (4%), furthermore Strongylida sp. (51.3%), Strongyloides sp. (8%), Trichuris sp. (8%), Moniezia sp. (2.7%) and Eimeria sp. (33.3%). The larvae of Haemonhcus sp. were observed in 89.6% (138/154) of the positive samples for strongyles; with 46% (138/300) of the total samples. Young and adult animals were significantly infected with Eimeria sp. (68%) and storngyles (54.4%), respectively. The age of the camel is considered a risk factor for Eimeria sp. (OR = 4.9157, 95 % CI: 2.041 – 11.8382), Fasciola sp. (OR =183.6667, 95 % CI: 9.9761 – 3381.4271) and Schistosoma sp. (OR =3.7664 (0.2058 – 68.9247). No significant difference associated with the GIP infection based on camels’ sex has been recorded. The seroprevalence of hemonchosis was 93.3%. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between fecal egg count and total immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in the infected sera. The study elicited that GIPs are highly prevalent and Haemonchus sp. is the most common gastrointestinal nematode among camels. The IgG response might be used as marker for monitoring the intensity of gastrointestinal nematodes infection. The periodical evaluation of GIPs is of great significance for food security and preventing the transmission of parasitic and zoonotic diseases.
Keywords: Camels, Prevalence, Gastrointestinal parasites, Hemonchosis, Seroprevalence, Immunoglobuline G
pdfFull text pdf
Anticancer Activity of the 28.4 kDa Protein from Pediococcus pentosaceus SR6 in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line
I Wayan Suardana, Hevi Wihadmadyatami and Dyah Ayu Widiasih
Abstract
Abstract
A preliminary study of total protein from the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain Pediococcus pentosaceus SR6 was proven to have an anticancer role in T47D cells. On the other hand, studies on the specific protein of this strain regarding its anticancer effect have so far never been revealed. Based on these considerations, this research was conducted. Research activities began by cultivating of LAB Pediococcus pentosaceus SR6 isolates, analyzing protein fragments using SDS-PAGE, isolating and electroeluting specific proteins from SDS-PAGE results, preparing MCF-7 breast cancer cell cultures, cytotoxic tests using the MTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity kit method, and analyzing cell morphology via observation using the DAPI and Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide (AO/PI) tests. The test results were then analyzed statistically using the SPSS25 program and then displayed in the form of Tables or Figures. The research results showed the 28.4kDa protein from Pediococcus pentosaceus SR6 was known to have anticancer activity with an IC50 of 5.42ppm. Their anticancer activity is selective because it is less toxic to normal cells which require a higher toxic dose, namely 28.36ppm. The protein has an ability to stimulate MCF-7 cells’ apoptosis and necrosis that is proved from the double staining with Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide (AO/PI) and DAPI stainings. In conclusion, The 28.4kDa protein from LAB isolate Pediococcus pentosaceus SR6 was proven to be used as an breast anticancer compound with its selective ability against normal cells.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Pediococcus pentosaceus SR6, MCF-7 cell line, Vero cells, IC5
pdfFull text pdf
Evidence for Antibody Dependent Enhancement for an Avian Coronavirus
Donald L Reynolds, E Barry Simpson and Matthew M Hille
Abstract
Abstract
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is caused by a gamma coronavirus and is a highly infectious disease of chickens that is problematic for commercial chicken producers around the world. A major problem for managing this disease is the ability of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) to mutate and generate new variants and serotypes that yield current vaccines less protective. Numerous new serotypes and variants have emerged that are unique to geographical regions around the globe. Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) is a phenomenon in which either non-neutralizing antibodies, or suboptimal (i.e., low) levels of neutralizing antibodies, facilitate entry into cells and promote increased viral replication. In this short communication, we report preliminary in vitro evidence of ADE using a chicken egg embryo model and a vaccine strain of IBV. To our knowledge, ADE has neither been reported nor explored for any viral disease of birds.
Keywords:Antibody dependent enhancement, Infectious bronchitis virus, Chicken coronavirus
pdfFull text pdf
Effectiveness of Once Used versus New CIDR in CIDR Co-synch Protocol for Resuming Reproductive Function in Anestrous Buffaloes During Low Breeding Season
Saurav Kandel, Gokarna Gautam, Bhuminand Devkota and Subir Singh
Abstract
Abstract
This study compared the effectiveness of once used versus new Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) device in CIDR co-synch protocol for resuming reproductive function in anestrous buffaloes during low breeding season. Either a new (T1, n=19) or once used CIDR (T2, n=31) was inserted into the vagina of buffalo on a random day (d0) and removed on d7. Buffaloes in both treatment groups received GnRH at the time of CIDR insertion and PGF2? during its removal. At 60-66 hrs after CIDR removal, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) was done and GnRH was injected. Ovarian status during CIDR insertion, corpus luteum (CL) size on 8-9 d after FTAI and pregnancy diagnosis were determined using transrectal ultrasonography. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups in terms of estrus expression, ovulation, pregnancy rates and local inflammatory response into the vagina of treated buffaloes. Although FTAI pregnancy rate was 16%, the overall pregnancy from FTAI and natural breeding within 50 d after FTAI was 42%. Estrus expression was affected by the ovarian cyclicity status at the start of the protocol. The size of the CL during 8-9 d after FTAI was larger in pregnant buffaloes as compared to non-pregnant buffaloes. In conclusion, the once used CIDR was as effective as the new CIDR for resuming reproductive function in anestrous buffaloes during low breeding season, however, the efficacy of protocol depended on the ovarian cyclicity status at the start of the protocol and the size of CL during 8-9 d after FTAI.
Keywords: Buffalo, CIDR, Estrus expression, Ovulation, Pregnancy, Ovarian cyclicity.
pdfFull text pdf
First use of Cisplatin as Chemotherapy for Treatment of Surgically-Excised Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Dromedary Camels: A Preliminary Report
Fahd Al-Sobayil, Mohamed Tharwat, Ahmed Ali, Ahmed Fathy and Mostafa Khodier
Abstract
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of using cisplatin as a chemotherapeutic agent in camels with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that were surgically treated with either a scalpel blade or an electrosurgical technique. Twenty adult camels with histologically confirmed SCC were randomly divided according to the method used for tumor removal into group 1 (n=10) using scalpel blade, group 2 (n=10) using electrosurgical technique. Five camels from each group were treated postoperatively with cisplatin. In group 1 treated with scalpel blade alone, all the 5 camels with SCC (100%) had tumor recurrence and died before the end of the experiment. In group 1 treated with scalpel blade with the use of cisplatin, recurrence was noticed in 4 out of the 5 camels (80%) with skin SCC and 2 out of the 5 camels (40%) died. In group 2 treated with electrosurgery alone, all the 5 camels with SCC (100%) had tumor recurrence and all died before the end of the experiment. However, in group 2 treated with electrosurgery with the use of cisplatin, recurrence was noticed in only 2 out of the 5 camels (40%) with skin SCC and only 1 out of the 5 camels (20%) died. The results of the present study show that in both groups of skin SCC, all tumors in camels treated with a scalpel blade or electrosurgically but without the chemotherapy cisplatin recurred and collapsed. However, recurrence in group 1 treated with cisplatin was not noted in 1 camel (20%) and 3 camels (60%) survived. Interestingly, in group 2 treated electrosurgically with the use of cisplatin, 80% of the camels survived and recurrence occurred only in 2 (40%) of the camels. The results of this study showed that 4 out of total 10 cases treated with cisplatin post-surgically continued to be alive for 12 months without tumor recurrence. In addition, this study showed that hemorrhage and tumor recurrences were less when using electrosurgical technique compared to sharp scalpel blade method. It was concluded that chemotherapy using cisplatin appeared to be effective postoperatively in camels with SCC especially if treated surgically with electrotherapy. Administration of cisplatin decreased the rate of tumor recurrence and increase the survival rate in the camels with cutaneous SCC. Although, this study is the first that use the chemotherapy cisplatin in camels with SCC, results are preliminary. Another study with large numbers of diseased camels is warranted.
Keywords:Animals, Electrosurgery, Cancer chemotherapy, Cisplatin, Squamous cell carcinoma.
pdfFull text pdf
Mesenteric Abscessation caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Thoroughbred Mare: Clinical, Etiological, Hematobiochemical, Sonographic and Treatment Follow-up
Mohamed Tharwat, Sobhy El-Magawry, Ali Kandeel and Abdulrahman A Alkheraif
Abstract
Abstract
This report describes an 8-year-old, 2-month-pregnant, Thoroughbred mare that was admitted with a week history of pyrexia, decreased appetite, respiratory distress, lethargy and recurrent fits of colic. The referring veterinarian had administered electrolyte solution and glucose, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and analgesics; but this treatment had resulted in no improvement. The mare was admitted with a history of fever, colic, weight loss, inappetence, and signs of depression. Ultrasonographic examination was performed on both sides of the abdomen using a real-time scanner equipped with a 3.5 and/or 5.0 MHz convex transducer but no mass was imaged as there was relatively long distance between the mass and the anus. After sedation with xylazine and infiltration of 10mL of procaine Hcl, sampling of the abdominal lesion was carried out by the use of a 14-gauge spinal biopsy needle. Ten mL of the mass contents were collected and then submitted immediately for bacteriologic culture and antibiotic sensitivity. On day 7, percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration of the mass was performed for cavity evacuation under sedation with xylazine 2%. The area between the 9th and the 17th intercostal spaces was clipped, shaved and aseptically prepared. With ultrasonography, the best site for aspiration was determined to be the 14th intercostal space where 10mL of procaine HCl was infiltrated locally. The aspiration location was selected so that the needle was advanced through the thickest portion of the mass. With ultrasound guidance, a 14G×170mm spinal needle was inserted into the abdominal mass using a free-hand technique. When the needle was advanced to the correct depth, the inner needle was removed, and a 50-mL syringe attached and pus was gradually aspirated. In conclusion, in the present report, results of physical and laboratory examination were not helpful. Sonography accompanied with fine-needle aspiration yielded a diagnosis and assisted in suspecting the prognosis of the case. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this case represents the 1st confirmed report of successful treated abdominal abscess in the horse caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Early sonographic location of abdominal abscess, accompanied with transcutaneous aspiration of the lesion and ultrasonographic follow-up monitoring is therefore recommended in horses with such presentations.
Keywords: Animals, Mesenteric abscessation, Pathology, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ultrasound.
pdfFull text pdf
Expression and Clinicopathological Relevance of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Canine Mammary Gland Tumors
Kabiru Sahabi, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Gurmeet Kaur Dhaliwal, Reuben Sunil Kumar Sharma and Noordin Mohamed Mustapha
Abstract
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in canine mammary gland tumors (CMT) and to investigate the expression relationship with clinical and histopathological parameters. Forty-six CMT tissues were immunohistochemically probed for the expression of FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4 using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The expression of each receptor was analyzed (Fisher’s exact test) for its relationship with clinical parameters (breed size, age, neuter status, involvement of inguinal mammary gland, number of glands involved) and histopathology (mitotic index, tumor size, tumor grade, PCNA and Vimentin expression). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox-Regression were performed for survival analysis. The proteins (FGFR2, -3 and -4) were localized to the membrane and cytoplasm. Forty-five tumors (97.8%) expressed both FGFR2 and FGFR3. The FGFR4 was expressed in 42 (91.3%) of the tumors. The expression of FGFR2 was significantly associated with histopathology grade 3 of the tumors (P=0.027). FGFR3 expression was not associated with any clinical or histopathology parameters. FGFR4 expression was associated with large breed dogs (P=0.044), and large tumor size (>3cm) (P=0.045), but none of the proteins expressed predicted post-surgical survival in the dogs. In this study, FGFR2 expression has indicated its usefulness in CMT as an indicator of increased tumor malignancy, while FGFR4 expression has demonstrated the ability to identify high stage tumors. Based on these findings, FGFR2 and 4 can be used as markers for advanced and aggressive CMT.
Keywords:Canine mammary tumors, FGFR, Immunohistochemistry, Western blot.
pdfFull text pdf
Effects of Parity Number on Some Reproductive Parameters in Landrace x Yorkshire Sows
Nguyen Hoai Nam, Thepsavanh Khoudphaithoune, Do Thi Kim Lanh, Nguyen Van Thanh, Nguyen Duc Truong, Nguyen Cong Toan, Bui Van Dung, Bui Tran Anh Dao and Peerapol Sukon
Abstract
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the effects of parity on different reproductive parameters including gestation length (GL), litter size (LS), litter birth weight (LBW), mean individual birth weight (MBW), and number of born dead piglets per litter (BDP) in Landrace x Yorkshire sows. Data was collected from 773 litters born from 773 sows raised on one farm in Northern Vietnam. Based on parity number, sows were categorized into 5 groups, i.e., 1, 2, 3-5, 6-7, and >7. One-way analysis of variance tests was used to compare the GL, LS, LBW, MBW, and BDP among the 5 groups. Results showed that parity significantly affected all the studied reproductive parameters. GL was longest in parities 1 and 6-7 (P<0.05). LS, LBW, and MBW were lowest in parity 1 (P<0.05) and remained stable in the later parities. BDP increased when the parity increased with the lowest value in parity 1 and highest values in parities 6-7 and >7 (P<0.05). This result enriches the understanding of the effect of parity on reproductive performance and may contribute to the management and culling strategies on farms to maximize the farm’s benefit. Keywords: Birth weight, Litter size, Parity, Reproductive performance, Sows, Stillbirth.
pdfFull text pdf
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus: A Boost for Hematological and Gut Health in Salmonella enteritidis-Infected Mice
Rondius Solfaine, Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama, Salipudin Tasil Maslamama, Faisal Fikri and Iwan Sahrial Hamid
Abstract
Abstract
Bacteria in the environment are naturally the target of predators, including various types of prokaryotes. This study aims to determine the effect of feeding Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (Bb) isolate against Salmonella enteritidis (SE) inoculation in intestinal villi of mice models. Sixteen mice were used and were divided into 4 groups, namely the control with placebo (D0), the SE (D1), the SE+Tiamphenicol (D2), and the SE+Bb inoculation group (D3). Inoculation of SE was carried out intraperitoneally at a dose of 2.5×108 CFU, and B bacteriovorus feeding treatment was given orally as a single dose containing 1×107 CFU. On the 5th day post-treatment, all groups were euthanized, and blood samples were taken for examination of the hematological profiles in intestinal organs. Data analysis was performed using one way ANOVA test and Duncan’s post hoc test (P<0.05). The results showed that there was a significant increase in the D3 group for the variables of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Histomorphology analysis indicated that feeding of isolate inhibited the destruction of epithelia and enterocytes in duodenal tissue. Consequently, it was concluded that feeding of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus can improve hematological value and the proliferation of villus in the intestine in SE-inoculation mice. Keywords:Health, Environment, Salmonella sp, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Salmonella enteritidis, Predator-prey interaction, Intestinal health, Hematological profiles.
pdfFull text pdf
Antibiotic Resistance and Pathogenicity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Cattle Raised in Households in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Minh TL Bui, Thuong T Nguyen, Hieu C Nguyen, Khai LT Ly and Thuan K Nguyen
Abstract
Abstract
Of 127 cattle feces samples collected in the Mekong Delta from March to June 2023, 121 samples were positive for E. coli (95.28%). In those surveyed households, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of E. coli in cattle of different ages, dairy or beef. The antimicrobial susceptibility test indicated that those E. coli strains were susceptible to ceftazidime (87.27%), cefuroxime (89.09%), amikacin, and doxycycline (90.91%). However, E. coli strains were remarkably resistant to ampicillin (81.82%), streptomycin and tetracycline (74.55%), colistin and chloramphenicol (70.91%), amoxicillin/clav.acid (65.45%). Moreover, 63.64% of examined E. coli strains were resistant to one to twelve antibiotics, and the resistant pattern of Am + Ac + Co + Sm + Te + Cl accounted for the highest rate (16.36%). By PCR method, the presence of genes encoding antibiotic resistance was determined, in which the tetA gene had the highest presence (69.09%), and the lowest was the blaTEM gene (18.18%). Most E. coli (34.55%) strains harbored two to four antibiotic resistance genes, and the phenotypes of cat1 + sulII and sulII + tetA were the most common (5.45%). Using the PCR method to determine the presence of virulence genes, it was recorded that the tsh gene had the highest presence rate (54.55%), and the lowest was the fyuA gene (12.73%). Those E. coli strains (23.63%) could carry two to four virulence genes, and the most common pattern was astA + tsh (9.09%). Thus, the prevalence of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant E. coli in cattle was critical to protect animal and human health.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Cattle, E. coli, Household, Pathogenic genes.
pdfFull text pdf
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Raw Milk from Egyptian Dairy Farm Animals with Subclinical Mastitis
Sohad M Dorgham, Amany A Arafa, Eman S Ibrahim and Abeer M Abdalhamed
Abstract
Abstract
Global concern surrounds Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), a dangerous pathogen. The fact that this bacterium can develop resistance to carbapenems used in clinical practice is one of the biggest worries associated with it. Furthermore, it has a strong propensity to rapidly disseminate this resistance, affecting healthcare settings across national borders and socioeconomic levels. Based on our research, out of 70 bovine milk samples were positive for Acinetobacter spp with an incidence (17.14%). Phenotypically, all Acinetobacter spp were confirmed as A. baumannii. Thus, the frequency of A. baumannii in milk samples was 17.14% (12/70). The isolates of A. baumannii exhibited the highest frequency of resistance to imipenem (10g), gentamicin (10g), and ceftazidime (30g), with an incidence of 100%. The PCR results showed that all A. baumannii strains (100%) carried the blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58 genes. These results raised the possibility that raw milk consumption could expose humans to a zoonotic risk of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB). Keywords:A. baumannii; Milk; CHROM agar; Carbapenem-resistant; ?-lactamase genes.
pdfFull text pdf
Molecular Detection of Leptospira Infection in Meat Goat of Southern, Thailand
Baramee Chanchayanon, Phucharat Nilsuwan, Suttirak Petcharat, Narissara Keawchana, Haseesah Yaprajan, Punnakan Suwannarat, Sasathon Thummatorn and Rutayaporn Ngasaman
Abstract
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a serious zoonotic disease causes by Leptospira spp. infection, and Thailand is an endemic area for both humans and animals. Infected animal such as cattle, sheep and goats can mostly be asymptomatic but can experience foetal abortions and stillbirths. Infected animals play a role in spreading the bacteria via urine. This study determined leptospirosis in meat goats of Southern Thailand by a molecular detection method. In total, 323 serum samples were collected from meat goats from representative provinces of Southern Thailand, namely Songkhla (179) and Yala (144), from April to June 2022 by the veterinarian of the Regional Livestock Health Unit 9, Songkhla, Thailand. Antibodies from previous infections were screened using the lepto-latex test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeted the LipL32 gene, and overall positivity was 76.47% (247/322). There was no statistically significant difference between the results from Songkhla (76.54%) and Yala (76.39%). The LipL32 PCR indicated an overall positivity of 9.29% (30/323), positive samples from Yala (18.75%) were significantly more abundant than those from Songkhla (1.68%) (P<0.00001). This study indicates a low active infection with a high previous infection (seroprevalence) of leptospirosis in meat goats, suggesting the circulation of leptospirosis of meat goats in Southern Thailand. DNA sequencing for analysing the serovars distribution among goat is needed. Disease prevention via vaccination based on serovar in Thailand be considered. Moreover, molecular detection of leptospirosis be applied for surveillance at herd level, and farmers and persons in contact with goats should be aware of Leptospira infections.
Keywords: Molecular detection, Leptospirosis, Meat Goat, Southern Thailand.
pdfFull text pdf
Surveillance for Genetic Markers of Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in Dogs and Cats
Ida BK Suardana, Bayu K Mahardika and Gusti N Mahardika
Abstract
Abstract
Surveillance for genetic markers of adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in dogs and cats could help to predict the risk of variant emergence, that resulted from virus adaptation to the new host. The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 collected from dog and cat is of high interest, since this variant caused global major cases and fatality during the pandemic. All complete and high coverage sequence data of Delta variant of dog and cat origin, as well as samples of human origin SARS-CoV-1 were downloaded. All selected sequence data were subjected to Clustal Omega alignment. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the Maximum Likelihood method using Mega11. Species-specific marker indicating a probable species adaptation of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 in dog and cat could not be identified. The markers found in many dog and cat samples is confirmed to be location specific markers that occurred in human origin virus. Keywords:SARS-CoV-2; Companion animals; Adaptation; Genetic markers.
pdfFull text pdf
Electrophoretic Protein Profiles of Seminal Plasma and their Correlation with Fresh Semen Quality in Indonesia Toraya Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) Bulls
Tulus Maulana, Hasbi, Hikmayani Iskandar, Syahruddin Said, Raden Iis Arifiantini, Jakaria and Asep Gunawan
Abstract
Abstract
The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between seminal plasma proteins and sperm quality in Toraya buffalo bulls. Semen samples were obtained from eight Toraya buffalo bulls aged 4-10 years. Semen collection was conducted using an artificial vagina, followed by assessment through macroscopic and microscopic analysis. The concentration of seminal plasma protein was measured utilizing the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay, followed by protein analysis through 1D SDS-PAGE based on protein molecular weight. The sperm quality of Toraya buffaloes showed an average semen volume of 2.08±1.12mL, sperm motility of 73.87±5.30%, sperm concentration of 883.12±381.35×106/mL, viability of 81.47±3.79%, abnormality of 7.36±3.24%, membrane integrity of 83.14±5.19%, and acrosome integrity of 92.98±2.56%. The parameter intact acrosome in sperm quality showed a positive correlation (0.73) with sperm viability with a significant (P<0.05). The total motile sperm per ejaculate was 1326.61±714.99×106, and the total straw per ejaculate was 54.06±28.59. The average seminal plasma protein concentration in Toraya buffalo was 161.41±12.41µg/mL. The Pearson correlation results of seminal plasma protein correlated with intact acrosomes with a significant P<0.05. The analysis of seminal plasma protein bands using 1D SDS-PAGE founded the presence of 12-19 protein bands with molecular weight ranging from11-155kDa. This study concluded a significant correlation between the seminal plasma protein concentration and sperm acrosome integrity in Toraya buffalo bulls. The identification of 12-19 protein bands that correlate with these factors is a promising finding and can be utilized to determine the reproductive quality and fertility of the bulls.
Keywords: Fresh semen, Seminal plasma, SDS Page, Sperm quality, Toraya buffalo
pdfFull text pdf
Investigation into Trypanosoma evansi Infection in Horses in East Sumba-Indonesia
Ida Ayu Pasti Apsari, Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, Ida Bagus Oka Winaya, Umbu Yabu Anngung Praing, Kadek Karang Agustina and I Wayan Masa Tenaya
Abstract
Abstract
Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is a blood parasite, the causative agent of Trypanosomiasis (Surra) in many animal species primarily horses. In Indonesia, surra is a major disease of horses causing a catastrophic outbreak in Sumba Island killed thousands of horses during 2010-2012. Diagnosis of the disease is frequently based on parasitological technique. The aims of this study were to investigate T. evansi infection using both serological, parasitological and hematological techniques in horses in East Sumba. A total of 270 blood samples were randomly collected from both sexes of the healthy-looking animals for serum tested with Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT), and blood smear for detecting the presence of the parasite and for the leukocyte sub-population respectively. The results showed that 24.81% (67/270) of the samples were positive antibody to T. evansi antigen, and only 2.2% (6/270) of the serologically positive samples were also confirmed positive with the parasite. The leukocytes sub-population of the parasite-positive animals consisted of lymphocytes 60-98% (82.17 ± 14.43%), monocyte 0-4% (1.5 ± 1.76%), neutrophiles 0-40% (16.17±14.57%), eosinophils 0% and basophils 0-1% (0.17±0.41%) respectively. It was concluded that the seroprevalence of investigated animals were almost 25%, 2.2% of them suffered with parasitemia, lymphocytosis and neutropenia. This data suggesting a positive correlation between the applied tests, and it was considered as a novel diagnostic confirmation regarding Surra infection in the region. Keywords: Trypanosoma evansi seroprevalence, Surra, CATT, Leukocyte sub-population
pdfFull text pdf
Investigation of the Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm-Forming Ability of Staphylococcus species from Bovine Mastitis cases in the Almaty Region, Kazakhstan
Lyailya Bessembayeva, Zhumagul Kirkimbayeva, Birzhan Biyashev, Assel Zholdasbekova, Gulnur Kuzembekova, Dinara Sarybayeva, Arman Zhylkaidar, Kairat Oryntaev and Flyura Bakiyeva
Abstract
Abstract
Cow mastitis is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of various factors, including the host, specific pathogens, the environment, the season, and keeping conditions. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mastitis in farms of the Almaty region (Kazakhstan), identify its pathogens, and study their properties. The authors conducted a study at the Biological Safety Laboratory of the Kazakh National Agrarian Research University using samples from several farms. 430 lactating cows of the Holstein and Alatau breeds were selected, with a total of 468 samples over two years. The ability to form biofilm in the isolated strains, as well as antibiotic sensitivity, was studied. Most of the isolated strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The cultures were isolated using microbiological methods, and DNA was analyzed using the CAMOMILE-NKMag-PCR kit. The results showed that the prevalence of mastitis in the Almaty region was 27.2%, mainly in the form of a subclinical manifestation. The authors also found a link between the degree of morbidity and the age of cows, as well as the number of calvings. Among the investigated strains, only 4.3% did not form biofilm. A high prevalence of antibiotic resistance was identified, and methicillin-resistant strains were isolated among S. aureus and S. epidermidis.
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; S. epidermidis; S. haemolyticus; Biofilm; Sample analysis; Antibiotic resistance
pdfFull text pdf
Flow Cytometric Evaluation of Different Monoclonal Antibody Clones against Rabbit Leukocytes
Doriana Beqiraj, Brixhilda Qyra, Ilir Dova, Albana Munga, Gabriele Brecchia, Enkeleda Ozuni, Laura Menchetti, Pëllumb Zalla, Stella Agradi, Egon Andoni, Susanna Draghi, Xhelil Koleci, Giulio Curone, Gerald Muça, Marta Castrica, Ornela Marko and Majlind Sulçe
Abstract
Abstract
Many techniques are described to correctly identify rabbit leukocytes. Both automatic and manual counts are used for this purpose of identifying different subsets of rabbit white blood cells. However, other techniques such as Flow Cytometry are used in veterinary medicine to identify different surface and intracellular antigens of cells in a short period of time and with high accuracy. Antibodies are needed when a flow cytometric analysis takes place and it is mandatory that these antibodies react with the cells of the species of interest. Antibodies should always be chosen carefully in order to have the best performance when their use is predicted, especially when taking into consideration their species specificity. However, antibodies reacting to a specific species can react also to other species. To prove this statement, antibodies have to be tested in order to define and confirm their reactivity to other species. In this study thirty-three peripheral blood samples from healthy rabbits were collected and tested for the following antibodies: CD21 (Clone: LT21), CD5 (Clone: YKIX322.3), CD4 (Clone: YKIX302.9), CD8 (Clone: YCATE55.9), CD11b (Clone: M1/70). All antibodies report different species reactivity from rabbits. Results showed that only CD11b reacts with rabbit myeloid cells showing satisfactory results. The clone used in this study showed higher performance on monocytes compared to granulocytes. However, further studies with a higher caseload are warranted to confirm the results. Keywords: Flow Cytometry, Rabbits, Antibodies, Leukocytes
pdfFull text pdf
Molecular Identification of Fungal Pathogens causing Feather Infection in Parrots Suffering from the Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD) Virus
Mohamed I AbdAllah, Sara M Elnomrosy, Nahla Hussien AbouEl Ela, Engy Farahat, Doaa D Khalaf, Khadijah A Altammar and Rasha MH Sayed-ElAhl
Abstract
Abstract
Accurate identification of infectious molds from clinical specimens is crucial, as evidenced by the rising incidence of invasive fungal diseases in birds and their growing frequency. Fungal DNA was found in parrot feather samples linked to Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD) virus infection following the detection of culture isolates. Internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) have been employed as targets for phylogenetic research as they typically exhibit sequence variation between species, with modest change within strains of the same species. Numerous sequence variations were found when comparing ITS region sequences from reference and clinical isolates of six Aspergillus species, one Rhizopus arrhizus, and two Penicillium species, The addition of 5.8S rRNA gene sequences had little effect on the species as a whole due to the presence of little diversity between species in this region. Amplification, sequencing, and comparison with non-reference strain sequences in GenBank were performed on strains and clinical isolates of aspergilli and other fungi. Aspergillus and other species amplified ITS region had a size range of 540 to 608 base pairs (bp). A bootstrap of 1000 replications of every fungal isolate was also displayed on the phylogenetic tree, along with varying percentage rates among the fungal isolates.
Keywords: Circovirus, PBFD, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Sequencing and Phylogenetic Tree.
pdfFull text pdf
Quality and Protein Profiles in Local Indonesian Ram Sperm Before and After Cryopreservation
Jaswandi, Sigit Prastowo, Rini Widyastuti and Ananda
Abstract
Abstract
Sperm quality plays a crucial role in determining the success of fertilization. This study aimed to assess the quality of both fresh and frozen ram semen, as well as examine changes in semen protein content. Four local rams, aged 3-4 years, were selected for the study. Semen collection was conducted in the morning using an artificial vagina. The collected semen was divided into two parts: one for analyzing fresh semen and the other for freezing. The freezing process involved using a diluent consisting of Tris hydroxy amino methane, citric acid, egg yolk fructose, 20% egg yolk, and glycerol. Both fresh and frozen semen samples underwent analysis using the same method, including examination of concentration, motility, viability, and various kinematic motility parameters, such as VAP, VCL, VSL, LIN, and STR, with the assistance of CASA (AndroVision®). Following collection, both samples were centrifuged at 4500rpm for 10min, and the supernatant and precipitate were stored at -40°C until analysis. Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford kit, and semen protein profiles were evaluated through SDS-PAGE and Coomassie Blue staining. The study revealed a significant decrease in semen quality following cryopreservation (P<0.05). Protein analysis results indicated that fresh semen exhibited ten specific proteins, whereas frozen semen expressed six specific proteins. These findings suggested a correlation between protein content and sperm quality, with the cryopreservation process altering the composition of proteins in sperm.Keywords: Ram, Sperm, Fresh, Frozen, Protein
pdfFull text pdf
Optimizing Reproductive Outcomes of Peranakan Etawa Goat with Microalgae Diet by Determining Ovarian Activity, Estradiol 17? Levels and Serum Malondialdehyde
Yudit Oktanella, Viski Fitri Hendrawan, Aulia Firmawati, Galuh Chandra Agustina and Risa Yuliana
Abstract
Abstract
This study aimed to identify Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) supplementation to examine the effects on the blood estrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the ovarian activity of Peranakan Etawa (PE) goats during anestrous conditions using ultrasound. A completely randomized design (CRD) was employed in the study, with three treatments totaling six replications (6 individuals) in each group. Group 1 (K-) consisted of untreated normal PE goats; Group 2 (K+) treated anestrus-prone PE goats with prostaglandin (PGF2?) and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) hormones; Group 3 (KP) treated anestrus-prone PE goats with PGF2? and GnRH hormones with super-antioxidant feed at a dose of 0.5% body weight for 21 days. The data observed included the onset of estrus, ultrasound picture of the ovaries, serum estrogen levels using the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method, and MDA levels using the Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) test method. ANOVA (Analysis of variances) post hoc LSD test was used to examine the collected data, and a significance value of P<0.05 was set. The findings indicated no significant difference between the goats in the KP and K-control groups (P<0.05) regarding estradiol 17? levels in those goats experiencing post-partum anestrus. Moreover, significantly lower serum MDA levels (P<0.05) were seen in the KP group. The ultrasound observations’ outcomes further demonstrated the presence of a dominating follicle image, which suggested ovarian activity following microalgae feeding. In goats undergoing post-partum anestrus, administering two injections of PGF2? in conjunction with microalgae supplementation was found to dramatically raise serum estradiol 17? levels. Keywords: Anestrus, Estrogen, Goat, MDA, Microalgae
pdfFull text pdf
Partial Restricted Selection Indexes to Fix the Length of Days Open in High –Yielding Dairy Cows
Amina A Habib, Gouda F Gouda, Manal El-Sayed and Ahmed R Shemeis
Abstract
Abstract
The main goal of the current work is to break the undesirable genetic linkage between milk yield (MY) and length of days open (DO) by using partial restricted selection indexes. Eight unrestricted selection indexes to increase MY and decrease the number of DO and the number of services per conception (NSC) were constructed. The sources of information were various combinations of yields of milk, fat (FY), and protein (PY) beside DO and NSC. Required phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated from 2538 lactation records of 846 Holstein cows, offspring of 98 sires, and 588 dams, adopting a multi-trait animal model with repeated records. Positive genetic correlations (0.33 to 0.99) were obtained among productive traits. Lactation curve traits were lowly genetically inter-correlated (-0.16 to +0.24). Genetically, MY was more related to DO (0.85) than the NSC (0.58). Selection for aggregate genotype involving MY, DO and NSC would develop Holstein cows with abundant MY (643.5 to 994.8kg) and longer DO (11.3 to 21.3 days) and higher NSC (0.15 to 0.37 service). Due to the collapse of selection accuracy, complete restriction of full index failed to break the unfavorable genetic associations between MY and DO. Meanwhile, it is possible to alleviate the rate of deterioration in reproduction in high lactating Holstein cows using the partial restricted indexes in the case of accepting the barter between the gains from increasing MY by the loss from prolonging DO.Keywords: High yielding dairy cows; Productive traits; Lactation curve traits; Reproductive traits; Selection indexes; Expected gain
pdfFull text pdf
Heritability, Selection Response, Genetic Gain and RAPD Markers of Anabas testudineus in Three Generations
Helmizuryani, Khusnul Khotimah, Boby Muslimin, Meika Puspitasari, Rosmiah, Danang Yonarta and Dewi Apriyanti
Abstract
Abstract
The acceleration of fish growth is often accomplished through individual selection programs. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate growth performance in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) over three generations by analyzing heritability, selection response, as well as genetic gain and distance using the molecular marker RAPD. Climbing perch broodstock was sourced from Musi River in South Sumatra, which produced three individually selected offspring. A total of three treatment types were used, namely first-generation (F1), second-generation (F2), and third-generation (F3). The treatment was replicated four times, and the experiment utilized a randomized design. Furthermore, gene diversity was compared among generations and natural populations using 19 primary RAPD markers. The results showed that low and high heritability was found in F1 (0.18) and F3 (0.40), respectively. The lowest selection response was observed in F1 (3.09g), while F3 (8.04g) demonstrated the highest. F1 also had the smallest genetic gain (5.58%), and F3 produced the largest (13%). Genetic distance (0.28) between F3 and the wild population was not significantly different. The results indicated that the next generation of climbing perch might not experience a significant genetic increase.Keywords: Climbing perch fish, Breeding, Family, Genetic
pdfFull text pdf
Development of a Novel Real-Time PCR-Based Test Panel System for Detection of Infectious Abortion in Domestic Sheep
Müge Dogan
Abstract
Abstract
The etiologic factors of abortion in sheep can be complicated by infections with more than one pathogen. This makes it difficult to identify the pathogen involved in abortions. In this study, we developed a real-time PCR-based diagnostic panel that can analyze many infectious agents simultaneously and allow faster diagnosis of some important infectious agents in ovine abortions. For this purpose, some important pathogens that are frequently detected in the study region and cause abortion in sheep (Bluetongue virus, Border disease virus, Peste des petits ruminant’s virus, Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii) were selected as targets. In order to evaluate the diagnostic test panel, standard curves of positive standard nucleic acid samples were first generated, and the analysis processes checked. According to the test results, the panel proved to be highly sensitive and specific. All target pathogens were also detected within a few hours. On the basis of results obtained, it can be concluded that the developed system can be used as a diagnostic panel with a broad detection of infectious agents in sheep abortion.Keywords: Sheep abortion, Diagnosis, Infectious agents, Real-time PCR, Verification.
pdfFull text pdf
Nutrient Digestibility and Physiological Parameters of Crossbreed Weaner Rabbits Provided Dehydrated Bovine Rumen Digesta
Udeh Fredrick U, Oyeagu Chika E, Ani Augustine O, Adetunji Adewole T and Lewu Francis B
Abstract
Abstract
The effect of dehydrated bovine rumen digesta (DBRD) on crossbreed weaner rabbits were tested. A total of 48 four-weeks-old crossbreed (New Zealand × Chinchilla) weaner rabbits of average initial weight of 0.88±0.02 to 0.92±0.02kg were assigned randomly into four dietary treatment groups with three replicates of four rabbits each. Dietary treatments include: DBRD0, DBRD5, DBRD10, and DBRD15. Body weight and daily weight gain of crossbreed weaner rabbits that consumed DBRD15 were higher (P<0.05) compared to those in other groups. Rabbits on DBRD15 consumed less (P<0.05) diet than those provided DBRD5 and control (DBRD0) diet. Rabbits that consume DBRD15 had the lowest (P<0.05) feed gain ratio value than those fed in other groups. Rabbits fed DBRD15 recorded the highest (P<0.05) digestibility of crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), and dry matter (DM). The digestibility of crude fat increased (P<0.05) in crossbreed weaner rabbits fed DBRD10 and DBRD15. Rabbits fed DBRD10 and DBRD15 had the highest (P<0.05) hemoglobin and packed cell volume production. Red blood cell production was significantly higher (P<0.05) for crossbreed weaner rabbits that consumed DBRD15. Rabbits fed dietary DBRD10 and DBRD15 had the lowest (P<0.05) lymphocyte counts than those provided the control (DBRD0) diet. The carcass weight was higher (P<0.05) for rabbits fed DBRD15. There was an increased (P<0.05) length of the large intestine for rabbits fed DBRD10 and DBRD15. Liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs weights were higher (P<0.05) for rabbits fed DBRD10 and DBRD15. We concluded that 15% graded levels of DBRD improved the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and health status of crossbreed weaner rabbits.Keywords: Abattoir Waste, Body Weight, Carcass, Crude Fiber, Hematology, Visceral Organ.
pdfFull text pdf
Effect of Mineral Feed Additives on the Rearing of Young Ducklings: An Experimental Study in Western Kazakhstan
Aruzhan Nugmanova, Arman Sabyrzhanov, Alzhan Shamshidin, Askar Nametov, Zhanylsyn Makhimova and Shakirbek Nazerke
Abstract
Abstract
The development of a feeding diet is necessary for the development of the poultry industry. In the West Kazakhstan region, we studied the technology of feeding waterfowl and the chemical composition of feed and feed additives. The analysis of the chemical composition and nutritional value of the feed was carried out, based on which feed mixture formulae for ducks of different sex and age groups bred at the Zhangir Khan Agricultural and Technical University were compiled. The experiment included one control and three experimental groups with different diets. Each group included 50 heads, and the birds were selected by the live weight analog group method. The study showed that when a composite mineral feed additive in a dosage of 4% was added to the ducklings’ diet, the ducklings gained more live weight. The study concluded that the incorporation of 4% composite mineral feed additive significantly enhanced the growth rates of young ducklings compared to the control group. This suggests that such feed formulations could improve productivity and offer a cost-effective strategy for poultry development in the regionKeywords: Breeding, Cross, Diet, Drake, Duck breeding, Duck meat, Poultry farming.
pdfFull text pdf
Optimizing Nutrient Digestibility Through Fermentation of Mangrove (Sonneratia alba) Fruit with Aspergillus niger: Implications for Livestock Feed Quality Improvement
Roni Pazla, Elihasridas, Novirman Jamarun, Gusri Yanti, Antonius, Ezi Masdia Putri, Zaitul Ikhlas, Shahid Ullah Khan, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Sharli Asmairicen, Maman Surachman, I Wayan Angga Darmawan, Sindu Akhadiarto and Zul Efendi
Abstract
Abstract
Utilizing mangrove (Sonneratia alba) fruit as an alternative feed source presents a viable avenue for enhancing livestock feed efficiency and sustainability. However, the intrinsic high tannin content of S. alba poses a significant barrier to its digestibility and utility as a feed component. The application of fermentation processes facilitated by Aspergillus niger emerges as a strategic intervention to diminish tannin impediments and elevate the feed material’s nutritional profile. This investigation delves into the ramifications of varied fermentation periods with A. niger on the digestibility, nutrient quality, and fermentative by-products of S. alba fruit. Adopting a completely randomized block design, the study administers treatments spanning fermentation durations of 7, 10, 13, and 16 days, scrutinizing their influence on a spectrum of digestibility indices, ruminal fluid properties, microbial protein synthesis, and gaseous production. The findings articulate that protracted fermentation markedly augments the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein, alongside elevations in volatile fatty acids and ammonia levels, while sparing rumen pH and overall gas output from significant alterations. Notably, a 16-day fermentation tenure culminates in optimal feed digestibility and nutritional amelioration, underscoring the potency of extended A. niger fermentation in curtailing tannin contents and fostering the adaptability of S. alba fruit as livestock feed, thereby advocating for advanced, sustainable feed formulation methodologies.Keywords: Aspergillus niger, In vitro digestibility, livestock feed, Mangrove fruit, Sonneratia alba, Tannin.
pdfFull text pdf
Characteristics of Biofilms Formed by Pathogenic Enterobacterales Isolated from Infected Gastrointestinal Tracts of Rabbits
Ekaterina Lenchenko, Nadezhda Sachivkina, Arfenya Karamyan, Olga Volobueva, Ekaterina Neborak, Marina Avdonina, Oksana Nechet and Maria Molchanova
Abstract
Abstract
The article presents the results of assessing the morphometric and densitometric parameters of biofilms of reference strains and clinical isolates of Enterobacterales. In a private rabbit farm, there was an outbreak of indigestion among young animals. Thirteen young rabbits with severe diarrhea were observed for over a week. Other animals did not have such symptoms. Sick rabbits were placed in a separate room. They took a stool test and blood from the ear (experience, n=13). For comparison purposes, the same samples were taken from healthy animals of the same age from the same farm (control, n=13). Among the 20 Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacterales isolated from the fecal mass of ill rabbits, 14(70.0%) isolates Escherichia coli O78, O20, and O101; 4(20.0%) isolates Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2(10.0%) isolates Salmonella genus: one S. enteritidis and one S. dublin were identified. Morphometric and densitometric indices of biofilms of reference strains and fecal isolates from ill animals had common patterns of biofilm formation. However, the clinical isolates formed more robust biofilms than the museum strains. Many types of microorganisms can increase their pathogenicity when exposed to susceptible animals. Our study proved this fact in Enterobacterales by comparing it with museum strains at all stages described in detail, which formed one of the main pathogenic factors – robust biofilms. Keywords: Rabbits; Digestive system; Biofilms; Salmonella; Escherichia; Klebsiella; Phenotypic signs
pdfFull text pdf