Volume 13, No. 5, 2024 (In Progress)

Optimization Indigofera zollingeriana and Gambier (Uncaria gambir) Supplementation on Feed Consumption, Digestibility, Methane Production and Lactation Performance of Etawa Crossbreed Goats
Laily Rinda Ardani, Mardiati Zain, Elihasridas, Erpomen, Roni Pazla, Yolani Utami, Rifa Ratna Sari, Muhammad Taufik Hadiwijaya, Ezi Masdia Putri and Malik Makmur
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 537-544.
Abstract
Abstract
The utilisation of Indigofera zollingeriana in rations as a replacement for high-protein concentrates can affect the nutritional quality of the feed. Gambier supplementation (Uncaria 17gambir) can shield the content protein from the breakdown process in the rumen so that post-rumen available amino acids are higher. This study explores the optimization of I. zollingeriana and U. gambir supplementation on feed consumption, digestibility, methane gas production, and lactation performance of Etawa Crossbreed goats. This experiment used a randomized block design with three groups and five replications. Fifteen Etawa Crossbreed goats were in their second lactation period with a body weight of 52±2 kg (n = 5 goats/group). The treatment in this study was as follows: A: field grass 60% + concentrate 40%; B: field grass 60% + concentrate 10% + Indigofera zollingeriana 30%; C: field grass 60% + concentrate 10% + I. zollingeriana 30% + U. gambir 1%. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks including an adaptation period of 7 days. Treatment of 30% I. zollingeriana and 1% U. gambir in ration significantly affected nutrient digestibility, milk yield, and the content of PUFA, MUFA, CLA, omega-3, and omega-6. Besides, this treatment significantly reduced methane gas production. Meawhile the combination of I. zollingeriana and U. gambir decreased feed composition. The content of milk protein, milk fat, milk lactose, and omega-9 were not different among treatments. In conclusion, I. zollingeriana and U. gambir supplementation are able to optimize nutrient digestibility, methane reduction, and lactation performance including milk yield, PUFA, MUFA, CLA, omega-3, and omega-6. Meanwhile, this supplementation has no impact on feed consumption, fat, protein, lactose and omega-9 of milk.
Keywords: Dairy goats, Etawa crossbreed, Indigofera zollingeriana, Lactation performance, Methane, Uncaria gambir.
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Retrospective Analysis of Different Cosmetic Methods in 53090 Dromedary Camels
Mohamed Tharwat, Abdulla Al-Hawas and Abdulrahman A. Alkheraif
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 545-549.
Abstract
Abstract
This study was designed to retrospectively report and analyze different cosmetic methods detected for tampering in dromedary camels that were presented for the King Abdulaziz Camel Festival (KACF). The medical records of 53090 camels (Camelus dromedarius) were retrospectively evaluated from February 4th, 2019 to January 12th, 2023 during the events of the 3rd to 7th seasons of the beauty shows of the KACF. Camels having different forms of tampering were examined by inspection primarily. Following, suspected camels were screened by diagnostic imaging including ultrasound, thermography and radiography, and by laboratory evaluation of testosterone and growth hormones. During the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th KACF seasons, 11912, 11526, 4635, 12634, and 12385 camels were respectively examined and 4 main methods for tampering were detected. It included injection of cosmetic fillers, stretching and binding of lips and injection of hormones. The pattern of filler injection was increased from counted 0.126 % camels in the 3rd season to reach 0.606% camels during the 7th KACF activities and showed significant difference among various seasons (?2 Value=111.258; P<0.001). Stretching of lips was also increased from only 0.034% cases at the 3rd to 2.212% camels at the 7th season (?2 Value=526.355; P<0.001). In a similar pattern, binding of lips was increased from 0.025% camels during the 3rd to 0.525% camels during the 7th season (?2 Value=129.906; P<0.001). Uses of hormones were also increased sharply from 0.008% camels at the 3rd to 0.129% camels during the 7th season. Collectively, overall tampering methods were increased from counted 0.193% camels in the 3rd season to reach 3.496% camels during the 7th KACF activities and showed significant difference among various seasons (?2 Value=508.898; P<0.001). In conclusion, a dramatic increase in tampering ways in dromedary camels presented to the KACF were noted. Therefore, a great challenge should be paid to the diagnosis of these methods that harm this creature, and even may cause undesirable permanent complications. Attention should also be paid to the new cosmetic methods that are discovered annually in camel beauty contests.
Keywords: Animals, diagnostic imaging, radiography, thermography, ultrasonography.
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Identification of Boerka Goats Raised in Bali by using Molecular Analysis of IGF1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1) Gene
I Wayan Suardana and I Nyoman Suyasa
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 550-556.
Abstract
Abstract
The fulfillment of the lamb demand in Bali, Boerka goats was developed by the local government in 2019. Boerka goats resulting from a cross between male Boer breeds and female Kacang goats are categorized as meat goats and predicted to have good adaptation to unfavorable environments like the Kacang goats and have good meat quality like Boer goats as their parents. The study aims to analyze insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) as a gene related to the growth of Boerka goats. A total of 16 Boerka goats from a group of livestock farmers in Sanda village were used as objects of study. The blood samples were taken in a venoject tube filled with EDTA anticoagulant. DNA total was extracted from each sample and subjected to PCR with IFG-1 gene target by using IGF677F 5’-ATTACAAAGCTGCCTGCCCC-’3 and IGF879R 5’-ACCTTACCCGTATGAAAGGAATATACGT-’3 primers. PCR products were then sequenced and analyzed with the MEGA 11 program. Results of the study showed the IFG-1 gene of Boerka goats compose of nucleotides dominated by adenine base guanine (22.3%), and pyrimidine tyrosine (33.9%). In conclusion, Boerka goats raised in Bali genetically share a clade with Ovis aries and Capra malabari with a bootstrap value is 99% as a type of meat and milk goats so that Boerka goats tend to have characteristics and appearance resembling Ovis aries and Capra malabari goats.
Keywords: Boerka goats, IGF1 gene, Bali, Indonesia
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Radiological Assessment of Critically Sized Femur Fracture Healing Using a Combination of Intramedullary Pin with Polymethylmethacrylate and Calcium Phosphate in Dog Model
Abdul Salam Khoso, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Muhammad Ghiasuddin Shah, Akeel Ahmed Memon, Atique Ahmed Behan and Muhammad Bilawal Arain
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 557-564.
Abstract
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate hypotheses related to critical-size bone defect reconstruction and compare the radiological parameters of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and calcium phosphate (CaP) bone materials. The research involved 36 healthy dogs divided into three groups (A, B, and C) with 12 animals in each group. Group A was treated with an intramedullary pin (IM-pin), group B was treated with PMMA in combination with an IM-pin, and group C was treated with CaP based bone graft material in combination with an IM-pin. The study assessed various endpoints at 14th, 28th, 45th, and 60th days post-surgery. The results indicate that regular radiological assessments were conducted in all three groups to evaluate fracture alignment and bone healing. On day 14th post-surgery, all groups showed appropriate fracture alignment, with varying degrees of gap reduction. Group A (IM pin only) had minimal gap reduction, while groups B (IM pin + PMMA) and C (CaP + IM pin) showed slight gap reduction. By day 28th, all groups demonstrated evidence of bone healing and callus formation, with groups B and C showing clearer callus formation in radiographs. In contrast, group A had considerable gap reduction due to increased immature callus formation and hyperplasia of surrounding tissues. On day 45th, substantial bone healing and callus formation were observed in all groups. Groups B and C exhibited prominent callus formation, indicating rapid healing and gap filling, while in group A, radiographs showed growth on both sides but an unfilled gap. By day 60th, fracture union was evident in groups B and C, while animals in group A treated with the IM pin only showed randomized luxation and an increased gap. It was concluded from the present study that radiographic results show the IM-Pin PMMA has proved to be the ideal implant material for femur bone fracture in dogs.
Keywords: Femur, Fracture, Intramedullary pin, Polymethylmethacrylate, Calcium phosphate.
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Impact of Age, Parity and Milking Frequency on Dromedary Camels’ Susceptibility to Subclinical Mastitis
Fahad S. Almulhim, Abdel Kader A. Zaki, Saleh M. Albarrak and Faten A.M. Abo-Aziza
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 565-573.
Abstract
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of age, parity, and frequency of milking on the susceptibility of three dromedary camel breeds to subclinical mastitis (SCM). The study involved 133 animals from the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia, assessing systemic, milk, immunological, and bacterial characteristics, and determining the likelihood of SCM through somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial count of milk. Blood and milk samples were analyzed for bacterial counts, somatic cell count, and immunoglobulin G (IgG), lactoferrin (LTF), and lactoperoxidase (LPO) concentrations. ELISA kits were used to quantify serum Cam-TNF-? and Cam-IL-6 Cam-IL-10 concentrations. SCC and milk examination were used to determine the tendency to form SCM. The study found a significant increase in SCC in Majahem and Shaele camels (P<0.001) after TAD milking and age >7 years (P<0.001), while a decline in Wadha camels (P<0.05). All breeds showed an increase in SCC at parity >2, with Majahem and Shaele most affected by factors like increased SCC and bacteriological examination. The study examined the impact of factors on serum IgG, LTF, and LPO in different breeds of camels. Results presented significant (P<0.05) elevations in serum IgG and LPO in Majahem, Wadha, and Shaele camels (P<0.01), while milk LTF increased significantly (P<0.05) in Shaele camels. The study found that after TAD milking, Majahem camels showed increased TNF-? (P<0.05), IL-6 (P<0.001) and IL-10 (P<0.05) levels, while Shaele camels showed a decrease in TNF-? (P<0.001) and a decline in IL-10 (P<0.05), indicating excellent indicator of udder status. The study highlights the importance of understanding microbiology, SCC, and immune parameters of milk camel breeds for hygienic practices. It highlights the need for early detection of SCM in camel milk, promoting further research to improve detection performance.
Keywords: Lactating Dromedary Camels, Lactoferrin, Antioxidants, Immunity, Camel milk, Subclinical mastitis.
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Identification of Risk Factors and Vaccine Efficacy for Lumpy Skin Disease in Sidoarjo and Blitar Districts of East Java, Indonesia
Saifur Rehman, Mutasem Abuzahra, Freshinta Jellia Wibisono, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Muhammad Shuaib Khan, Shakeeb Ullah, Adamu Abdul Abubakar, Ali Zaman, Muhammad Kamal Shah, Muhammad Inamullah Malik, Attaur Rahman, Asghar Abbas and Muhammad Nadeem
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 574-579.
Abstract
Abstract
Lumpy skin disease, also known as LSD, is a highly contagious and economically devastating transboundary disease that affects cattle and water buffaloes. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with lumpy skin disease outbreaks and evaluate the effectiveness of a potential vaccination for the condition in two districts (Blitar and Sidoarjo) of East Java. The data were gathered through questionnaires completed via personal interviews. The collected data encompassed demographic information, herd sizes, breeds, and other relevant factors that were present throughout LSD epidemics. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that keeping local breeds (P=0.043; OR= 0.19; CI=0.217–0.004), having a large herd size (P<0.001; OR=0.436; CI=0.406–0.163), not using a separate pen for the new cattle (P=0.001; OR=0.136; CI=0.136–0.562), presence of flies on the farms (P<0.001; OR=0.162; CI=0.081–0.325), selling of animals during the LSD outbreak (P=0.006; OR=0.232; CI=0.071–0.755), use of vaccine in the rainy season (P=0.027; OR=1.137; CI=1.018–1.269) and outdoor (grazing) (P=0.001) were significantly associated with the occurrence of LSD in the studied area. It was found that the wet season affects vaccine efficacy. The findings of the current study provide valuable preliminary information on the factors contributing to the spread of the disease and the effectiveness of the vaccine in controlling it, which can be used to develop effective control strategies and policies to minimize the impact of LSD on the livestock industry in Indonesia.
Keywords: Risk factors; Efficacy; Lumpy skin Disease; Vaccine; Indonesia.
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Hematological and Serum Biochemical Changes in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Thonburi district, Bangkok, Thailand
Narong Kulnides, Athip Lorsirigool and Natapol Pumipuntu
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 580-585.
Abstract
Abstract
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are highly infectious, particularly among stray cats, with reported cases documented worldwide. This retrospective study analyzed cats infected with FeLV and FIV or co-infected with both in the Thonburi area of Bangkok from 2018 to 2022. A total of 830 cats were admitted to the animal clinic exhibiting clinical signs of depression, emaciation, ataxia, pale mucous membrane, gingivitis and corneal opacity. Twenty-nine cats tested positive for FeLV (3.49%), ranging in age from 2 to 60 months, while 16 cats tested positive for FIV (1.93%), ranging in age from 5 to 96 months and 30 cats tested positive for both FeLV and FIV (3.61%) with ages ranging from 4 to 108 months. None of the infected cats had received vaccination against FeLV or FIV and they were raised in an open husbandry system. Co-infection with FeLV and FIV was associated with a higher incidence of Mycoplasma spp. infection compared to cats infected with FeLV (P<0.001) or FIV (P<0.001) alone. Anemia was observed in co-infection with FeLV-FIV (24.24+9.97%), leukocytosis in co-infection with FeLV-FIV (21.38?21.66?103 cell/?L), neutrophilia in FeLV (64.28+16.28?103 cell/?L), FIV (67.19+11.92?103 cell/?L) and FeLV+FIV (64.03+17.09?103 cell/?L). Thrombocytopenia was found in FeLV+FIV (247.13+148.98?103 cell/?L), with increased BUN in FeLV, FIV and FeLV+FIV, increased creatinine in FIV and elevated ALT in FeLV+FIV infected cats.
Keywords: Cats, FeLV, FIV, Hematology, Serum biochemistry.
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Breeding Methods and Results of Creating “Mamyr-Aktobe” Intra-breed Type of Meat and Dairy Productivity of Kushum Horse Breed of Aktobe Population
Tolybek Rzabayev, Tolegen Assanbayev, Serikbay Rzabayev, Nikolay Arsyutin and Kalybek Rzabayev
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 586-591.
Abstract
Abstract
The Kushum horse breed is very popular in Kazakhstan due to its adaptability to local conditions and high meat and dairy qualities. Obtaining new intra-breed types of this breed is necessary to improve the genetic potential and achieve high indicators of meat and dairy productivity. The purpose of this study was to develop a new intra-breed type “Mamyr-Aktobe”. Breeding work was carried out with the following livestock of the producing composition n=318, including stallions 18 animal units, mares – 300 units. The genealogical structure of promising branches of breeding lines of Kushum horses has been analysed, and their meat and milk parameters were evaluated. Adult stallions of the new intra-breed type have high measurements and live weight: the average height at the withers is 157.9cm, the oblique length of the trunk is 163.5cm, the chest and pastern girth are 205.2 and 22cm, respectively, the live weight is 656.2kg, and the massiveness index is 149.3%. For mares, the average height at the withers is 152.5cm, the indicator of the oblique length of the trunk is 160.2cm. The circumference of the chest and pastern is 188.7 and 20cm, respectively. On average, mares of the new intra-breed type weigh 529kg, and their massiveness index is 139%. Based on these characteristics, the new intra-breed type “Mamyr-Aktobe” can be used to improve the breeding qualities of the Kushum horse breed, as well as in meat and dairy farming.
Keywords: Horse breeding; Live weight; Massiveness index; Dairy productivity; Pasture-wintering management.
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Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis in Holstein-Friesian Cow Dairy Among Small-Scale Farms in Batu, Indonesia
Rifa’i, Lilik Eka Radiati, La Choviya Hawa and Puguh Surjowardojo
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 592-595.
Abstract
Abstract
Subclinical mastitis continues to be a common issue for small-scale dairy cow farmers in Indonesia. This disease poses significant challenges for farmers as it can lead to a reduction in milk production, resulting in severe economic losses. This study involved 126 dairy cows with lactation periods ranging from 1 to 5, sourced from 29 different farmers, totalling 504 quarters examined. The research utilized a case study method with field exploration conducted in Toyomerto Village, Batu Sub District, Batu City, East Java, Indonesia. The analysis of subclinical mastitis was carried out using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The findings of the study revealed a prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Toyomerto Village at 69.84% (n=88). Among all the tested teats, 41.47% of them were detected with subclinical mastitis, with the highest prevalence observed in the right hind teats, totalling 27.27%. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows from small farms in Toyomerto Village remains notably high. The continued lack of attention to sanitation and cleanliness remains a primary factor in the high prevalence of mastitis.
Keywords: Dairy cows, Prevalence, Subclinical mastitis.
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Thermoregulatory Responses of Swamp Buffalo Heifers to different Microclimatic Conditions and Feed Consumption
Reswati Reswati, Rudy Priyanto, Wasmen Manalu, Raden Iis Arifiantini and Bagus Priyo Purwanto
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 596-601.
Abstract
Abstract
Buffaloes are more susceptible to heat stress because they have poor thermoregulation due to fewer sweat glands. Like other livestock, buffaloes receive body heat from internal metabolic processes and the environment. This study investigates the relationship between buffalo thermoregulatory responses to microclimate and feed consumption in 12 Swamp buffalo heifers. This research was carried out in three sub-districts in West Sumatra, Indonesia, which were classified as low-land (Nan Sebaris District, Padang Pariaman Regency), moderate-land (Guguk District, 50 Kota Regency), and high-land (Batipuh District, Tanah Datar Regency). The Latin Square Design was used as the research design in three locations (4 heads per location) with varying microclimate conditions (altitude) and feed energy contents (TDN). F0 (buffaloes fasted for 24 hours), F1 (TDN = 58–60%), F2 (TDN = 63–65%), and F3 (TDN = 68–70%) were the feed treatments. The microclimate (ambient temperature-Ta and Temperature Humidity Index-THI), feed consumption (dry matter-DM and Total Digestible Nutrient-TDN), and thermoregulatory responses (rectal temperature-Tr, mean skin surface temperature-mTs, body temperature-Tb, heart rate-HR, and respiratory rate-RR) were all recorded. On days 11, 14, 17, and 20, environmental parameters and physiological responses were measured every 3 hours. The findings confirm that microclimate and feed consumption impact thermoregulatory responses. When the energy content of the feed increased, all thermoregulatory responses increased significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion, the buffalo thermoregulatory response was sensitive to changes in feed intake and microclimate variation. This study could help guide buffalo-raising management in various microclimate areas to achieve optimal productivity.
Keywords: Altitude, Heat stress, TDN intake, Temperature humidity index.
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Development and Application of a Rapid Test for Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-specific Antibodies
Adnan Ali, Sheng Jinliang, Xiao Shengzhong, Li Yan, Zhang Yanhong, Yang Yan, Hao Jingxiu and Shi Feng
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 602-610.
Abstract
Abstract
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically consequential animal pathogen that engenders substantial financial losses in the realm of cattle farming, and it maintains a prevalent presence on a global scale. Presently, the prevailing modality employed for its detection is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which necessitates the use of sophisticated instrumentation, protracts the duration of analysis, and is primarily suited for laboratory-based diagnostics. Regrettably, ELISAs do not lend themselves to convenient on-site detection within cattle farms. To surmount this predicament, colloidal gold particles were synthesized using tri-sodium citrate reduction, and subsequently harnessed to label the E2 protein (E2-Au). By amalgamating the gold standard binding release pad with colloidal E2-Au, we have devised a comprehensive assay system. The nitrocellulose membrane serves as the platform, whereby the detection line is adorned with E2-Au, while the quality control line is coated with proprietary polyclonal rabbit antibodies specific to E2. The method yields results within a span of 10-15 minutes, exhibiting an impressive total compliance rate of 93.36% (239/256) when compared to the commercial kit. The E2 test strip demonstrates specific reactivity with the anti-BVDV antibody, while avoiding any cross-reactivity with antibodies targeting Brucella, bovine foot and mouth disease, Mycobacterium bovis, bovine para-tuberculosis, bovine pasteurellosis, and bovine infectious rhinotracheitis. Consequently, the E2 strips offer heightened specificity, cost-effectiveness, and ease of operation, rendering them more convenient and expedient in comparison to ELISA kits. Utilizing the E2 strips, a comprehensive assessment encompassing 36 cattle farms and 2035 cattle in the vicinity of Xinjiang, China, was conducted. The positive rate within the group reached an impressive 91.67%, with individual positive rates standing at 54.05%.
Keywords: Bovine viral diarrhea virus; Colloidal gold; Test strip; Epidemiological investigation, Bovine disease.
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Effect of Heat Shock through MDA and 8-OHdG Levels of Post-Thawing Goat Oocytes
Widjiati Widjiati, Eka Pramytha Hestianah, Epy Muhammad Luqman, Sultan Fadhilla Taqwa, Jemy Caesar, Zahra Shabira and Riski Lesta Mega
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 611-616.
Abstract
Abstract
The text explores crucial technologies for safeguarding genetic resources, particularly local goats in Indonesia, emphasizing methods to protect oocytes essential for in vitro maturation and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) or stocks. Vitrification is identified as the optimal choice for preserving oocyte stocks. The study investigates the impact of heat shock on thawed goat oocytes, focusing on Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Comparing a commercial cryoprotectant (P1) with ethylene glycol 30% and 1M sucrose (P2), the results reveal a significant difference in MDA levels between P1 (0.081±0.023) and P2 (0.421±0.053). Additionally, a trend suggests no statistically significant difference in 8-OHdG levels between commercial media (7614.08±250.56) and EG 30% + 1M sucrose (7815.02±191.91). In conclusion, the study underscores the complexities associated with cryoprotectant concentration, confirming that ethylene glycol 30% with 1M sucrose can effectively vitrify goat oocytes with careful exposure during warming and adherence to vitrification protocols.
Keywords: In vitro maturation, MDA, 8-OhdG, Oocyte, Vitrification, Food security.
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Incidence and Effected Factors of Clinical Mastitis on Dairy Cows Raised in Farms in Central and East-Southern Vietnam
Thuong T Nguyen, Thuan K Nguyen, Nhu Q Ho, Thu NA Le, Thanh C Pham and Cuong K Nguyen
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 617-622.
Abstract
Abstract
A total of 20,823 Holstein × Lai Sind crossbred dairy cows from three farms in Central and East-Southern Vietnam were examined to clarify the prevalence of clinical mastitis and evaluate its effects from July to October 2022. The results indicated that clinical mastitis in cows was present at a relatively low rate (7.05%), and the high-density farms had a higher rate of clinical mastitis in cows than in other farms. In a hot, humid month, the incidence of clinical mastitis in cows (7.78%) was higher than in other months in this study, especially in the high-density farm. Cows at the first parity were clinical mastitis (32.58%) higher than at other parities, followed by cows at the second parity. As indicated, farm scale, months, and parity affected the incidence of clinical mastitis in cows in those survey farms. Clinical mastitis caused the fluctuation in milk yield, which was determined at 15.45±8.67 to 18.44±0.72 kg/cow/day; moreover, the milk yield of clinical mastitis cows in the large-scale farm showed a significant fluctuation. Among examined bacterial pathogens, Streptococcus agalactia (34.65%) was the most detected from milk samples of clinical mastitis cows, followed by Klebsiella (14.47%) and Escherichia coli (10.09%), but Staphylococcus spp. was present at the lowest rate (0.88%). The treatment followed the veterinarian’s guidelines and was adequate for clinical mastitis cows in this study within five days (79.15%). Thus, mastitis management in dairy farms is significantly required to prevent disease spreading in farms, especially in high-density herds.
Keywords: Bacterial pathogens, Clinical mastitis, Dairy cows, Milk yield, Vietnam
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Sprague-Dawley Rats Induced by Uninephrectomy, DOCA Injection, and Sodium Chloride: A Suitable Model for Chronic Hypertension with Cardiac Hypertrophy
Edwina Rugaiah Monayo, Wawaimuli Arozal, Deni Noviana, Agian Jeffilano Barinda and Bambang Widyantoro
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 623-631.
Abstract
Abstract
One of the most commonly used hypertensive rat models is the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive model. However, there is limited research on whether this model can induce cardiac hypertrophy. This study aimed to provide a reliable animal model for chronic hypertension that triggers cardiac hypertrophy using an echocardiographic approach to detect changes in cardiac performance. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to normal and DOCA-salt groups. Induction of chronic hypertension with cardiac hypertrophy was carried out by uninephrectomy, DOCA (20mg/kg/b.w) dissolved in 0.1mL of dimethylformamide (DMF) subcutaneously twice weekly and 1% NaCl in drinking water daily for five weeks. Blood pressure (BP) and echocardiography were observed. Serum was taken and checked for CK-MB and LDH. qRT-PCR determined the mRNA expression of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Furthermore, we examined the histopathological characteristics of cardiac tissue. In the DOCA-salt model, BP were significantly increased, echocardiography showed that left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall thickness (LVPWd), interventricular septal end-diastole thickness (IVSd) was significantly increased (P<0.01, respectively) and also exhibited decreased left ventricular internal diameter end-diastole (LVIDd). There was a significant increase in CK-MB, LDH activity, and mRNA expression of BNP in DOCA-salt group. Additionally, histopathological changes in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area indicate cellular hypertrophy of the heart upon DOCA-salt administration. The findings showed that uninephrectomy with subcutaneous injection of DOCA dissolved in 0.1mL DMF followed by administration of 1% NaCl in drinking water could be a reliable animal model for chronic hypertension that triggers cardiac hypertrophy.
Keywords: Animal model, cardiac hypertrophy, DOCA, Echocardiography, Hypertension
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Sperm Morphometry in Lusitu Pigs and the Motility Characteristics Post-incubation in Non-hyperactivating and Hyperactivating Media: A Comparison with the Large White Genotype
Rubaijaniza Abigaba, Pharaoh C Sianangama, Edwell S Mwaanga, Wilson NM Mwenya and Progress H Nyanga
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 632-639.
Abstract
Abstract
This study explored the reproductive status of Lusitu pigs, in comparison with the Large white genotype, in terms of their morphology and motility metrics. At least five ejaculates were collected from each boar, with a total of 60 analyzed for sperm morphology and kinematic parameters. Data were analyzed descriptively using means and standard deviations and inferentially with a Two-Way nested ANOVA. Both Lusitu and Large white genotypes generally had similar sperm head length, width, area, and perimeter (P>0.05). However, shape varied, particularly ellipticity and rugosity (P<0.05); effect of individual boar on ellipticity and rugosity was also significant (P<0.05). In terms of kinematic parameters, especially Wobble, Linearity, and ALH, Lusitu boars were of a lower fertility status than large white considering the observed mean scores (P<0.05). Fertility superiority of the Large white boar sperm was more evidenced when incubated with a hyperactivating medium; most kinematic parameters varied significantly between the two breed groups (P<0.05). A higher (P<0.05) proportion of Large white boar sperm (61.48%) switched to a hyperactive state compared with those of Lusitu (45.20%) boars. All kinematic parameters for Lusitu boar sperm in non-hyperactivating compared with those in hyperactivating medium varied in respect to their mean scores (P<0.05). It is concluded that breed had an effect on morphology and kinematic characteristics of boar sperm incubated in the two media. The CASA system can be used to determine the morphology and kinematic characteristics of Lusitu boar semen during fertility evaluation.
Keywords: Bacterial pathogens, Clinical mastitis, Dairy cows, Milk yield, Vietnam
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Micro-encapsulated Vegetable Oils Supplementation in Dairy Cattle Ration: In Vitro Fermentation and Digestibility Study
Lolita Udin Riestanti, Despal, Berliana Prameswari Oktavianti, Yuli Retnani and Nuri Andarwulan
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 640-646.
Abstract
Abstract
Supplementing oils in dairy ration containing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) increased fatty acid profiles in ration and such an energy source for dairy cow. The high level of supplementing might increase the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) contained in dairy milk but reduce rumen fermentation and digestion characteristics. This study aimed to identify the effect of supplementing vegetable oil micro-encapsulation on rumen fermentability and digestibility. The experiment used a 6×5 factorial randomized block design with three replications. Rumen liquor was obtained from fistulated dairy cow Frisien Holstein. The first factor was the vegetable-based oil (corn, palm, sunflower, soybean, sesame, and canola), and the second factor was the percentage level of micro-encapsulated vegetable oils supplementation (0, 4, 5, 6, and 7). The results showed that supplementing micro-encapsulation vegetable oil significantly decreased (P<0.05) the pH score, protozoal and bacteria population, NH3 concentration, and ration digestibility. The variation of oil used significantly influenced pH score, total VFA concentration, and digestibility, except for OMD. Interaction effects between two factors were found in total protozoa population and NH3 concentration. Micro-encapsulation vegetable oil should be considered with fatty acid content and availability of oil, but the supplement levels should be given under 4% to reach the optimal results and not interfere with rumen microbial.
Keywords: Digestibility, Fermentability, Micro-encapsulation, Vegetable Oil
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Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Preparations for the Sanitation of the Udder of Dairy Cows
Gulnur Tanbayeva, Bakhyt Barakhov, Orynbay Tagayev, Zhaxylyk Myrzabekov, Primkul Ibragimov, Gulmira Alpysbayeva, Murat Kalmagambetov and Dinara Darbekovna Narbayeva
Int J Vet Sci, 2024, 13(5): 647-654.
Abstract
Abstract
Subclinical mastitis prevention in dairy cows necessitates the use of effective pre- and post-milking udder preparations. Many imported post-milking udder treatments have proven ineffective and costly, prompting the exploration of composite preparations based on chemical compounds. This study aims to assess the bactericidal properties of Promixan, a preparation based on Anavidin and its impact on subclinical mastitis prevention and milk quality under production conditions. The experimental study took place at two Republic of Kazakhstan farms. Three groups of cows, comprising those with subclinical mastitis (for disease treatment) and healthy cows (for disease prevention), were selected. To evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of post-milking udder treatments, microbial concentration dynamics were observed every two hours until the subsequent milking. Promixan exhibited 98.1 and 96.7% effectiveness in preventing subclinical mastitis in healthy cows at the Adal Agro-Industrial Complex farm and E.S. Aidarbayev farm, respectively, after 4 hours of exposure. In the group of sick cows, it demonstrated effectiveness rates of 95.3 and 94.3%, respectively. These results indicate that Promixan matches or surpasses the bactericidal properties of analogs. When used on sick cows, Promixan outperformed Blockade and Vet Clean I-Film by 2.1 and 2.2%, respectively, indicating its comparable effectiveness. Experimental studies revealed that Promixan’s bactericidal properties surpassed those of Blockade and Vet Clean I-Film by 3.4 and 3.3%, respectively. Promixan effectively forms a bacteriological protective film on cow udder teats, preventing microbial penetration into the skin, and proves to be a viable alternative to existing treatments for subclinical mastitis prevention in dairy cows under production conditions.
Keywords: Sanitary treatment, Subclinical mastitis, Bacteriological protection, Udder teat, Mastitis prevention, Bacterial contamination.
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