Volume 12, No. 3, 2023 (In Progress)

Physical Hazards in Wild Ungulate Meat Harvested for Food Purposes: A Systematic Review
DV Nkosi, JL Bekker and LC Hoffman
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 272-283.
Abstract
Abstract
Meat safety includes the absence of physical hazards that has a potential of causing physical harm to consumers. Whilst there are physical hazards introduced in most in meat products, it is clear that some of the hazards, such as bullets particles and bone splinters, find their way in hunted wild ungulates in processes employed during killing. To assess the physical hazards that may occur in the game meat/venison industry, a systematic review of scientific literature published in English between 2000 and 2021 is conducted. The majority of studies evaluated and identified the risks of wild animal killing, which included fragmented bullets particles and bone splinters due to bones fracturing due to the killing process of game meat animals. Despite alternatives, such as the adoption of less fragmenting bullets, its compulsory implementation is proving a challenge in most countries.
Keywords: Wild ungulates; Physical hazards; Hunting; Harvesting; Fragmenting bullets; Bone splinters.
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Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Against Some Multidrug-Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
Abeer Mwafy, Dalia Y Youssef and Marwah M Mohamed
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 284-289.
Abstract
Abstract
Mastitis is the most common disease affecting dairy farms, causing inflammation of the mammary glands and reducing milk quality and production. Incorrect use of antibiotics leads to serious problems in veterinary medicine due to the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibiotic resistant bacteria are considered the big problems worldwide. This study aims to isolate pathogenic bacteria from raw milk samples taken from subclinical mastitic cows. In addition, estimation of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was also done against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from subclinical mastitic cows. Out of 28 milk samples, 85.7% samples showed positive bacterial isolation while 33.3% samples had single isolates while, 66.7% showed mixed isolates and 4 samples showed negative bacterial isolation. The obtained results showed that the resistance ratio of S. aureus and E. coli to different antibiotics using the disc diffusion technique was highest for Amoxicillin, then Tetracycline, and finally Nalidixic acid. Results of the MIC of ZnO nanoparticles against isolated E. coli and S. aureus were 31.3µg/mL and 7.8µg/mL, respectively. While the MBC was 62.5µg/mL for E. coli and 15.6µg/mL for S. aureus. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles could be used instead of common antibiotics to treat subclinical mastitis in cows caused by E. coli and S. aureus and to overcome the problems of multidrug resistant bacteria.
Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, Mastitis, Antibacterial activity, E. coli, S. aureus.
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Effect of Season, Sex, and Age on Hematological Constituents in Healthy Egyptian Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) in Giza Zoo, Egypt
Soheir Aasem Abd Al-Galeel, Sabry Ahmed Mousa, Mohamed Ragaii Younis and Taher Ahmad Baraka
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 290-294.
Abstract
Abstract
Egyptian aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) is a native antelope in Egypt and is listed as vulnerable according to the IUCN-Red List of threatened species. Little previous research data about the normal hematology of Aoudad are available. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the normal blood constituents in healthy Egyptian Aoudad kept in Giza Zoo under the effect of season, sex, and age. One hundred and forty animals were used in this study and divided according to seasons into 35 animals in each season, according to sex into 60 females, 45 males, and 35 males in rutting season, and according to age into 50 young and 90 adult animals. The results showed a significant increase (P<0.05) of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in winter. Males in the rutting season showed significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of erythrocytes (14.34±0.58x106cells/mm3) than non-rutting males (12.26±0.38x106cells/mm3) and females (11.96±0.36x106cells/mm3). The influence of age was clear in erythrocyte count, which increased significantly (P<0.05) in young Aoudads. To conclude, this study shows the significant effect of seasons, sex, and age on the blood constituents of Aoudad that should be taken into consideration during the interpretation of laboratory results in healthy and diseased cases. Keywords: Aoudad (Ammotragus lervia); Hematological; Rutting; Season; Zoo.
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Effect of the Methanol Extract of Annona squamosa Linn Leaf on Cervical Cancer
Made Dira Swantara, Wiwik Susanah Rita, Made Asmarani Dira and Kadek Karang Agustina
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 295-301.
Abstract
Abstract
Anona squamosa Linn leaves methanol extract was tested for anticancer activity, and the active components were identified in this study. The brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) was used to measure the chemicals toxicity of the A. squamosa leaves extracted at room temperature using methanol. An anticancer test on HeLa cells was also carried out using this hazardous extract. The identification of the active compounds was carried out by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At an LC50 value of 26.30ppm the extract was toxic, while at 35.65, it showed anticancer activity. Furthermore, 15 compounds which were responsible for this anticancer activity were identified. They include: ethyl-diethylene glycol, 3,7-Dimethyl-6-octenal, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl, 1-Methoxy-4- (1-propenyl) benzene, 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate or Geranyl acetate, methyl-dodecanoic acid, methyl-tetradecanoic acid, methyl-hexadecanoic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 7-Acethyl-6-ethyl-1,1,4,4-tetramethyltetralyn, methyl-9-Octadecenoic acid, 9,12-Octamethyl-decadienoic acid, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, and bis (2-ethylhexyl)-1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid. According to this study, A. squamosa leaves can be employed as a natural anticancer agent for cervical cancer.
Keywords: Cervical anticancer activities, HeLa cells, Annona squamosal.
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In vitro antiprotozoal effect of alcoholic extract of hemolymph of Galleria mellonella larva against Trichomonas gallinae
Tasneme A. Ghazy, Gehan M. Sayed, Doaa S. Farghaly, Mohsen I. Arafa, Basma M. Abou-El-Nour and Al-Shaimaa M. Sadek
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 302-308.
Abstract
Abstract
Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that lives in the upper gastrointestinal tract of birds. Recently, the hemolymph of Galleria mellonella has been widely used as an anti-parasitic drug. The present work aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of an alcoholic extract of G. mellonella hemolymph (AEGmH) on T. gallinae in vitro compared with that of metronidazole using wet smear and vital stain acridine orange (AO). The results showed that the degree of growth inhibition of Trichomonas was based on the AEGmH concentration. Furthermore, the highest reduction of parasitic growth (100%) was observed in cultures treated with 25, 12.5, and 6.25mg/mL AEGmH before 24h. Moreover, the same results were detected in cultures treated with 3.1 and 1.6mg/mL AEGmH, but after 48h, and doses of AEGmH (0.8 and 0.4mg/mL) after 96h. In comparison, complete inhibition of parasite growth (100%) was obtained by metronidazole at 25mg/mL after 72h. Besides, light microscopy observations revealed changes in trophozoites’ morphology in culture treated with AEGmH. We concluded that the alcoholic extract of hemolymph of G. mellonella is suitable to counter trichomoniasis in vitro and showed antiprotozoal potential.
Keywords: Antitrichomonal, Galleria mellonella larva, Hemolymph, Metronidazole, Trichomonas gallinae.
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Influence of Copper and Zinc Nanoparticles on Genotyping Characterizations of Multi-Drug Resistance Genes for Some Calf Pathogens
Ahmed M. A. El-Hamaky, Atef A. Hassan, Ahlam K.A. Wahba and Manal M.E.A. El Mosalamy
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 309-317.
Abstract
Abstract
Nowadays there is a worldwide problem in the control of animal diseases due to the multidrug resistance of pathogens. Fecal samples, pharyngeal swabs, and rations were examined for cases of respiratory and diarrhea infections in calves. The most predominant species were A. flavus and E. coli pathogens. The drug-resistance against A. flavus and E. coli was tested. Nanotechnology was used and evaluated to overcome the drug resistance to conventional drugs. Herein, ZnONPs and CuNPs were used instead of commercial antibiotics against A. flavus and E. coli pathogens. They suppressed the growth and viability of A. flavus and E. coli sp., and the MIC was (600?g/mL). In addition, the molecular detection of virulent genes such as A. flavus (aflR) and E. coli (stx1) confirmed their conventional identification. In addition, the isolates were PCR tested for multidrug resistance (MDR) genes using primers for the Azole resistance gene (CYP51) in A. flavus and ampicillin resistance gene (CITM) in E. coli. The treated isolates with ZnONPs and CuNPs at high doses, 600?g/mL and 150?g/mL, eliminated the signals of DNA bands of MDR genes, respectively. Whereas the expression of genes was observed with the treatment of E. coli and A. flavus with low doses of 100 and 50?g/mL of ZnONPs and CuNPs, respectively. The exposure of pathogens to high doses of ZnONPs and CuNPs (600 and 150?g/mL) prevents mutation of the azole resistance gene (CYP51) in fungi and ampicillin resistance gene (CITM) in bacteria. Hence, the supplementation of ZnONPs and CuNPs for rations can inhibit the microbial viability and removal of drugs resistant genes.
Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, Escherichia coli, Nanoparticles, Multidrug resistance Genes, Calves.
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Improved Efficiency of Bluetongue Viral Antigen Isolation for Successful Immunization
Zhuldyz Kurmanbekova, Zhumagali Koshemetov, Madina Seisenbaeva, Yergali Abduraimov and Kuandyk Zhugunissov
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 318-323.
Abstract
Abstract
Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease transmitted by Culicoides spp. The clinical presentation of BT varies widely among susceptible sheep, and in most cases results in severe illness and death in the infected animals. The mortality among susceptible sheep ranges from 2-30% but can occasionally be as high as 70%. Therefore, we investigated a new method to increase the purified BTV-antigen. BTV viral suspensions were purified using Freon-113 and ultracentrifugation through 40% sucrose. We obtained 94.5-95.8% purification of the BT-16 viral antigen. Sheep and cows were immunized with the isolated BTV antigen obtained from this method to confirm antibody specificity to BTV. The antibody activity measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from goat serum was 7.0log2 to 13.0log2 (on average 10.8±2.28log2) relative to that of sheep (P<0.05 to P<0.0001). We show here that this method can successfully purify BTV-16 antigen and could be used for large-scale production and other BTV serotypes. Keywords: Bluetongue Virus; Freon-113; Serum; Viral Purification; Agar Gel Immunodiffusion; Ruminants.
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Anatomical, Histological, and Ultrasonographical Studies on the Liver of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) with its Arterial Blood Distribution and Biliary Ducts
Nora A. Shaker, Marwa H. Hassan, Ibrahim A. Emam, Yasmine H. Ahmed and Samar M. EL-Gammal
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 324-332.
Abstract
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the anatomical and histological characteristics of the Egyptian red fox. We performed liver ultrasonography on eight animals while used two livers for morphological study. To illustrate the hepatic artery branches, two specimens were injected with colored red latex neoprene through the abdominal aorta. The other two specimens were injected with a mixture of lead oxide and colored green latex neoprene through the major duodenal papilla to demonstrate the radiological images of the biliary duct pattern. The last two specimens were used for histological study. The fox’s liver had six lobes; left lateral, left medial, quadrate, right medial, right lateral, and caudate lobes. The gall bladder was pear-shaped and was embedded in a fossa between the right medial and the quadrate lobes. The left hepatic duct formed the common bile duct, and the cystic duct union then passed about 0.5-1cm to join with the right hepatic duct. The branches of the proper hepatic artery supply the liver lobes. Histologically, liver parenchyma consisted of lobules; each lobule had a central vein and hepatic cords with hepatic sinusoids in between. Histochemically, hepatocytes were stained with Periodic Acid Schiff and Bests carmine stains. Gall bladder lined by simple columnar cells rests on fibrous propria-submucosa rich in blood capillaries. This study has practical importance in surgical treatment, as in partial hepatic lobectomy and hepatic artery or lobar arteries ligation in case of tumors.
Keywords: Liver, Hepatic Artery, Bile Duct, Histology, Ultrasonography, Red Fox.
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Spermatozoa Quality of Kintamani Dogs in Coconut Water-Egg Yolk Diluent with Addition of Moringa Leaves and Carrot Extract
Wayan Bebas, I Wayan Gorda and Kadek Karang Agustina
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 333-340.
Abstract
Abstract
The success of artificial insemination in dogs is significantly influenced by the quality of the semen used. Furthermore, during storage at 5oC, the semen is attacked by free radicals, which adversely affect its quality. Moringa leaves, and carrot extracts are natural ingredients with high antioxidant content, expected to overcome free radical attacks and oxidative stress experienced by sperm during storage. Therefore, this study aims were to examine the effect of adding Moringa leaf extract or carrot juice in coconut water-egg yolk diluent on the sperm quality of Kintamani dogs. The method used a completely random design. Three treatment groups exist for each diluent. The base diluent consists of young coconut water-egg yolk (D1), the base diluent plus moringa leaves extract (D2), and the base diluent plus carrot juice (D3). The life spermatozoa were observed in eight sections, from 0 (control) to 84 hours with 12 hourly observations. Each treatment group was examined for spermatozoa progressive motility, viability, abnormalities, and intact plasma membrane. The results showed that D2 maintained semen quality significantly better (P<0.05) than D1 and D3. However, D3 was better than D1 (P<0.05). It was concluded that the addition of moringa leaves extract in coconut water-egg yolk diluent maintained the best quality of spermatozoa for 60 hours, with motility, viability, abnormality, and intact plasma membrane of 56.67±19.98, 60.83±18.63, 11.83±2, 64, and 55.83±17.45%, respectively. Keywords: Kintamani Dog, Storage Time of Semen, Moringa Leaves Extract, Carrot Juice.
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Effect of in Vitro Maturation Medium Supplementation with Chitosan Nanoparticles on The River Buffalo Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes
Mohamed Elbehary, Yousry A Dowidar, Abdallah M Ashour, Eman M Abd El Fattah and Ahmed Monir
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 341-346.
Abstract
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) supplementation to the in vitro maturation medium on the expansion of cumulus cells, nuclear maturation, and relative gene expression of Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), B-cell lymphoma-2 Apoptosis Regulator (BCL2), and BCL2 Associated X (BAX) in the River buffalo. Slaughterhouse-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) became matured in vitro in the absence (control) or presence of CNPs (10, 25, and 50µg/mL). At the end of maturation, we assessed expansion rates and denuded COCs; then, some replicates were fixed and stained to determine nuclear maturation. Other replicates were vitrified until we acquired enough oocytes, thawed, and assessed gene expression. We concluded that 10µg/mL CNPs significantly increased cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation. Whereas 10 and 25µg/mL CNPs non-significantly increased SOD1 relative expression, BCL2/BAX ratio for 10µg/mL CNPs was significantly higher than in control, 25 and 50µg/mL CNPs groups.
Keywords: Buffalo; Oocyte; In vitro maturation; Chitosan nanoparticle; Gene expression.
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Correlation between Oxidative Stress Markers and Biochemical Indices of Cardiac Function of Postpartum Albino Rats Administered Natron
Bello HA, Saidu Y, Abubakar MK, Wali U, Abbas AY and Muhammad SA
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 347-352.
Abstract
Abstract
Natron has been implicated in the pathogenesis of peripartum cardiomyopathy, probably due to oxidative stress. The current research investigated the correlation between the antioxidant status of cardiac muscles and serum biochemical indices of cardiac function of postpartum albino rats administered natron. Twenty postpartum rats were divided into four groups, each group having 5 female rats. Group A received distilled water while groups B, C, and D were orally administered 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight of natron, respectively. The administration of 300mg/kg body weight of natron increased malondialdehyde level to 18.27±3.75 from 13.01±2.25nmol/g fresh tissue, significantly (P<0.05) decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of catalase (CAT) to 0.98±0.46 and 4.11±0.14 from 3.50±0.75µmol/min/g and 5.27±1.03ng/g fresh tissue, respectively in the cardiac muscles as compared with the control. Natron administration also increased the serum levels of troponin I and myoglobin and increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. The cardiac function indices showed significant (P<0.05) positive correlations with malondialdehyde and significant (P<0.05) negative correlations with antioxidant enzymes. The results, therefore, indicated that the administration of high concentrations of natron led to an increase in markers of oxidative stress in the cardiac muscles, which may be responsible for the observed derangement in the cardiac function indices. Keywords: Peripartum cardiomyopathy, Oxidative stress markers, Biochemical indices, Natron, Albino rats.
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Using in-ovo injection of olive pulp extract and vitamin C to improve hatchability, post hatch growth performance, carcass traits and some biochemical blood analysis in broiler chickens
Walaa H Khalifa, MG Sallam, Nancy N Kamel, A Samy, SA Yassein, GM El-Mallah and GE Abusinaa
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 353-359.
Abstract
Abstract
A total of 630 fresh hatching eggs containing live embryo at 14 day of incubation were distributed randomly into seven treatment groups (three replicates/treatment, 30eggs/each) and the fertile eggs were injected in the yolk sac as following groups: eggs were un –injected (T1), eggs were injected with hole only as negative control (T2), eggs were injected with distilled water as positive control (T3), eggs were injected with OPE at 500 and 1000ppm/egg, T4 and T5), while eggs were injected with Vit C at 4 and 8mg/egg (T6 and T7) respectively. The newly hatched chicks resulting from previous treatments were raised till 5 weeks old. Results showed that hatchability %, hatched chicks weight significantly improved for OPE (1000ppm/egg, T5) compared with vitamin C groups. However, performance of chicks resulting from injected eggs with (8 mg/egg, Vit C, T7) showed significantly (P?0.001) increase in body weight (bwt), body weight gain (bwt) and feed intake than control groups. Measurements of carcass traits of OPE (1000ppm/egg) showed significant improvement in dressing weight when compared to those all injected control groups. Birds resulting from injected eggs with vit C treatments having higher plasma total protein and globulin level compared to others in non-injected control group. Additionally, in-ovo OPE (1000ppm/egg) injection resulted in boosted plasma antioxidants enzymes activities and significantly increased plasmaT4 concentrations compared with different control groups. In conclusion, in-ovo injection at day14 of incubation with either of OPE or vitamin C has positive effect on hatchability %, chick performance, dressing weight and anti-oxidative status of hatched chicks. Hence, in-ovo injection with OPE (1000ppm/egg) at14th day of incubation could be recommended for improving chick’s health.
Keywords: In-Ovo Injection, Olive Pulp, Vitamin C, Hatchability, Performance, Biochemical blood analysis.
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Age-Dependent Depigmentation of Black Karakul Sheep
Kulzada M. Lakhanova, Bakhytzan Kedelbaev, Karlygash Korazbekova, Gani Kalymbetov and Zhanara Baimagambetova
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 360-365.
Abstract
Abstract
The relevance of the subject under study is conditioned upon changes in the exchange of melanin in skin cells, which result in unevenly coloured sheep hair. The purpose of this study investigated the nature of depigmentation inheritance of the hair of black Karakul sheep in ontogenesis. The objective method was the main method used in the study. The results of the study showed that the climate was one of the factors for preserving the colour of the desired shade of an adult. Bonitation of young animals according to the pronounced pigmentation of krimmer lamb takes place when the young animals reach the age of one and a half years. During this period pigmentation gradually decreases, and the wool becomes completely white. The originality of this study lies in the analysis of the cellular mechanism of regulation of melanogenesis in sheep. The materials of this paper are of practical value for breeders in controlling a biological phenomenon that affects the quality of the Karakul sheep breed.
Keywords: Pigmentation, Karakul Sheep, Sheep Breeding, Wool Colouring, Phenotype Change in Ontogenesi.
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Rosuvastatin Restrains the Headway of Experimentally Induced Liver Fibrosis: Involvement of NF-?B and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway
Khaled Ghaith, Mostafa Abbas Shalaby, A Ramadan, Sahar S. Abd El-Rahman and Hany M. Fayed
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 366-374.
Abstract
Abstract
The serious health issue of liver fibrosis causes significant morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis does not currently have a conventional treatment due to its complicated pathophysiology. Statins are well-known by their Pleiotropic effects such as anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and antifibrotic actions. This investigation aimed to mark whether rosuvastatin could prevent the rat liver fibrosis caused by thioacetamide (TAA). Following two weeks of TAA injection, ROS (5 and 10mg/kg, daily) was given orally concurrently for further four weeks. ROS markedly decreased the upsurge in serum aminotransferase activities (AST and ALT) and restored albumin level. The increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, along with the declined malondialdehyde (MDA) level, showed ROS antioxidant capabilities. Further, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were both upregulated by ROS treatment while decreased the levels of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), p-NF-?B, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6). Additionally, ROS upregulated considerably the gene expression of Nrf2 and downregulated PI3K gene expression. Moreover, expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) was reduced while Nrf2 protein expression was elevated by ROS. Thus, it can be concluded that rosuvastatin could protect liver tissue against progression of TAA-induced fibrosis. This can be at least partially due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and downregulation of NF-?B.
Keywords: Liver Fibrosis; Rosuvastatin; Thioacetamide; Nrf2; HO-1.
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Effect of Freeze-dried Amnion with Human Amniotic Stem Cells Seeding on the Expression of FGF-2 and the Number of Fibroblasts in Vesicovaginal Fistula: An Animal Study
Wijayanti, Eighty Mardiyan Kurniawati, Widjiati2 and Budi Iman Santoso
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 375-381.
Abstract
Abstract
Surgery is the standard therapy for vesicovaginal fistula. The surgical success rate in these cases ranges from 70-100%, and the risk of recurrence is high. The human amniotic membrane is especially being developed for tissue engineering in urogynecology. The study aimed to determine the effect of freeze-dried amnion with human amniotic stem cells seeding on the expression of FGF-2 and the number of fibroblasts in vesicovaginal fistula in New Zealand rabbits. We conducted experimental research with a post-test-only control group design. The female rabbits were divided into three groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits. The specimens taken were subjected to immunohistochemical staining to determine the expression of FGF-2 and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine the number of fibroblast cells. We analyzed data statistically. The expression of FGF-2 in primary suturing and freeze-dried amnion with human amniotic stem cell seeding was higher than in the other groups (P<0.05). We found the highest fibroblast cells in the primary suturing and freeze-dried amnion with human amniotic stem cell seeding (P<0.05). The use of freeze-dried amnion with the seeding of human amniotic stem cells affects postoperative wound healing seen from the expression of FGF-2 and the number of fibroblasts. This study can be used as a recommendation for clinical use but needs to be clarified by conducting human studies. Keywords: Amnion, FGF-2, Fibroblast, Vesicovaginal fistula, Rabbit.
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Study of the Dynamics of Distribution, Seasonality, and Degree of Infection with Bovine Theileriosis in the Territory of Turkestan Region
Mazhit Kozhabaev, Aisulu Kuzerbaeva, Kenes Baizhanov, Seisenkul Tulemetova and Nurzhan Nurkhodzhaev
Int J Vet Sci, 2023, 12(3): 382-388.
Abstract
Abstract
The relevance of the study is conditioned by the need for rational planning and timely implementation of therapeutic and preventive measures with cattle in various geographical regions, to prevent the spread of ticks and to form an objective understanding of the real features of the epizootic situation in these regions. The purpose of the study is to investigate the dynamics of the spread, the seasonality, and the degree of infection with bovine theileriosis in the Turkestan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The leading approach is a combination of the method of determining the species composition of ixodic mites using the technique developed by V.I. Pomerantsev, with a practical investigation of the seasonality of the spread of ticks, through a survey of various pastures, and regular collection of ticks from cattle during a certain period of the pasture season in stationary points, to establish the species composition of ticks and the degree of contamination of pastures. The research was carried out using the capabilities of the laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the regional veterinary laboratory and on the farms of the Turkestan Region. Practical results were obtained in the course of this study, indicating the main trends in the dynamics of the spread, seasonality, and degree of infection with bovine theileriosis in the territory of the Turkestan Region and the country as a whole. The study results and the conclusions formulated on their basis have significant practical significance for livestock workers of the Turkestan Region of Kazakhstan, whose professional duties include monitoring the condition of cattle on these farms and preventing the occurrence and spread of various epidemics among animals.
Keywords: Endoglobular Parasites, Theileriosis, Anti-Theileriosis Measures, Animal Treatment.
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